Iphone Screen Turned Yellow

Picture of Iphone Screen Turned Yellow

This article is about the line of smartphones by Apple. For other uses, see iPhone (disambiguation). iPhone The front face of iPhone X Developer Apple Inc. Manufacturer Foxconn, Pegatron (contract manufacturers) Type Smartphone Release date June 29, 2007 1st gen: June 29, 2007 3G: July 11, 2008 3GS: June 19, 2009 4: June 24, 2010 4S: October 14, 2011 5: September 21, 2012 5C, 5S: September 20, 2013 6 / 6 Plus: September 19, 2014 6S / 6S Plus: September 25, 2015 SE: March 31, 2016 7 / 7 Plus: September 16, 2016 8 / 8 Plus: September 22, 2017 X: November 3, 2017 Units sold 1.

2 billion+[1] Operating system iOS System-on-chip used Chips used 1st gen and 3G: S5L8900 3GS: S5PC100 4: Apple A4 4S: Apple A5 5 / 5C: Apple A6 5S: Apple A7 6 / 6 Plus: Apple A8 6S / 6S Plus and SE: Apple A9 7 / 7 Plus: Apple A10 Fusion 8 / 8 Plus / X: Apple A11 Bionic CPU CPU 1st gen and 3G: Samsung 32-bit RISC ARM 1176JZ(F)-S v1.0[2] 3GS: 600 MHz ARM Cortex-A8[3] 4: 800 MHz ARM Cortex-A8[4] 4S: 800 MHz dual-core ARM Cortex-A9[5] 5 / 5C: 1.

3 GHz dual-core Apple A6 5S: 1.3 GHz 64-bit dual-core Apple A7 6 / 6 Plus: 1.4 GHz 64-bit dual-core Apple A8 6S / 6S Plus and SE: 1.85 GHz 64-bit dual-core Apple A9 7 / 7 Plus: 2.34 GHz 64-bit quad-core Apple A10 Fusion (2x Hurricane + 2x Zephyr)[6] 8 / 8 Plus / X: GHz 64-bit hexa-core Apple A11 Bionic (2x Monsoon + 4x Mistral) Memory Memory 1st gen and 3G: 128 MB LPDDR RAM (137 MHz) 3GS: 256 MB LPDDR RAM (200 MHz) 4: 512 MB LPDDR2 RAM (200 MHz) 4S: 512 MB LPDDR2 RAM 5 / 5C: 1 GB LPDDR2 RAM 5S and 6 / 6 Plus: 1 GB LPDDR3 RAM 6S / 6S Plus, SE and 7: 2 GB LPDDR4 RAM 8: 2 GB LPDDR4X RAM 7 Plus: 3 GB LPDDR4 RAM 8 Plus and X: 3 GB LPDDR4X RAM Storage 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, or 256 GB flash memory[7] Display Display 1st gen and 3G: 3.

5 in (89 mm) 3:2 aspect ratio, scratch-resistant[8] glossy glass covered screen, 262,144-color (18-bit) TN LCD, 480 × 320 px (HVGA) at 163 ppi, 200:1 contrast ratio 3GS: In addition to prior, features a fingerprint-resistant oleophobic coating,[9] and 262,144-color (18-bit) TN LCD with hardware spatial dithering[10] 4 and 4S: 3.5 in (89 mm); 3:2 aspect ratio, aluminosilicate glass covered 16,777,216-color (24-bit) IPS LCD screen, 960 × 640 px at 326 ppi, 800:1 contrast ratio, 500 ​cd⁄m² max brightness 5 / 5C / 5S / SE: 4.

0 in (100 mm); 16:9 aspect ratio; 1136 × 640 px screen resolution at 326 ppi 6 / 6S / 7 / 8: 4.7 in (120 mm); 16:9 aspect ratio; 1334 × 750 px screen resolution at 326 ppi 6 Plus / 6S Plus / 7 Plus / 8 Plus: 5.5 in (140 mm); 16:9 aspect ratio; 1920 × 1080 px screen resolution at 401 ppi X: 5.8 in (150 mm); ~19.5:9 aspect ratio; 2436 × 1125 pix screen resolution at 458 ppi Graphics Graphics 1st gen and 3G: PowerVR MBX Lite 3D GPU[11] (103 MHz) 3GS: PowerVR SGX535 GPU (150 MHz)[12][13] 4: PowerVR SGX535 GPU (200 MHz)[12][13] 4S: PowerVR SGX543MP2 (2-core) GPU 5 / 5C: PowerVR SGX543MP3 (3-core) GPU 5S: PowerVR G6430 (4-core) GPU 6 / 6 Plus: PowerVR GX6450 (4-core) GPU 6S / 6S Plus and SE: PowerVR GT7600 (6-core) GPU[14] 7 / 7 Plus: PowerVR Series 7XT Plus (6-core) GPU[6] 8 / 8 Plus / X: Apple-designed (3-core) GPU Sound Bluetooth stereo speaker (iPhone 7 and up) microphone 3.

5mm stereo audio jack (not available on iPhone 7 and up) Lightning port (requires iOS 10 or later) Connectivity Wi-Fi and Bluetooth 1st gen, 3G, and 3GS:Wi-Fi (802.11 b/g) 4, and 4S:Wi-Fi (802.11 b/g/n) 5, 5C, and 5S:Wi-Fi (802.11 a/b/g/n) 6 / 6 Plus, 6S / 6S Plus, 7 / 7 Plus, and SE:Wi-Fi (802.11 a/b/g/n/ac) 1st gen, 3G, 3GS, and 4:Bluetooth 2.1 + EDR 4S, 5, 5C, 5S, and 6 / 6 Plus:Bluetooth 4.

0 6S / 6S Plus, SE and 7 / 7 Plus:Bluetooth 4.2 8 / 8 Plus / X:Bluetooth 5.0 GSM models also include: LTE 700, 2100 MHz UMTS / HSDPA/HSPA+ / DC-HSDPA 850, 900, 1900, 2100 MHz GSM / EDGE 850, 900, 1800, 1900 MHz CDMA model also includes: LTE 700 MHz CDMA/EV-DO Rev. A 800, 1900 MHz UMTS / HSDPA/HSPA+/DC-HSDPA 850, 900, 1900, 2100 MHz GSM / EDGE 850, 900, 1800, 1900 MHz Power Built-in rechargeablelithium-ion battery 1st gen: 3.

7 V 5.18 W·h (1400 mA·h) 3G: 3.7 V 4.12 W·h (1150 mA·h) 3GS 3.7 V 4.51 W·h (1219 mA·h) 4: 3.7 V 5.25 W·h (1420 mA·h) 4S: 3.7 V 5.3 W·h (1432 mA·h) 5: 3.8 V 5.45 W·h (1440 mA·h) 5C: 3.8 V 5.73 W·h (1510 mA·h) 5S: 3.8 V 5.92 W·h (1560 mA·h) 6: 3.82 V 6.91 W·h (1810 mA·h) 6 Plus: 3.82 V 11.1 W·h (2915 mA·h) 6S: 3.82 V 6.55 W·h (1715 mA·h) 6S Plus: 3.8 V 10.45 W·h (2750 mA·h) SE: 3.

82 V 6.21 W·h (1624 mA·h) 7: 3.8 V 7.45 W·h (1960 mA·h) 7 Plus: 3.82 V 11.10 W·h (2900 mA·h) 8: 3.82 V 6.96 W·h (1821 mA·h) 8 Plus: 3.82 V 10.28 W·h (2691 mA·h) X: 3.81 V 10.35 W·h (2716 mA·h) Online services iTunes Store App Store iCloud iBooks Podcast Apple Music Passbook Dimensions Dimensions 1st gen: 115 mm (4.5 in) H 61 mm (2.4 in) W 11.6 mm (0.46 in) D 3G & 3GS: 115.

5 mm (4.55 in) H 62.1 mm (2.44 in) W 12.3 mm (0.48 in) D 4 & 4S: 115.2 mm (4.54 in) H 58.6 mm (2.31 in) W 9.3 mm (0.37 in) D 5, 5S & SE: 123.8 mm (4.87 in) H 58.6 mm (2.31 in) W 7.6 mm (0.30 in) D 5C: 124.4 mm (4.90 in) H 59.2 mm (2.33 in) W 8.97 mm (0.353 in) D 6: 138.1 mm (5.44 in) H 67 mm (2.6 in) W 6.9 mm (0.27 in) D 6 Plus: 158.1 mm (6.22 in) H 77.8 mm (3.

06 in) W 7.1 mm (0.28 in) D 6S & 7: 138.3 mm (5.44 in) H 67.1 mm (2.64 in) W 7.1 mm (0.28 in) D 6S Plus & 7 Plus: 158.2 mm (6.23 in) H 77.9 mm (3.07 in) W 7.3 mm (0.29 in) D 8: 138.4 mm (5.45 in) H 67.3 mm (2.65 in) W 7.3 mm (0.29 in) D 8 Plus: 158.4 mm (6.24 in) H 78.1 mm (3.07 in) W 7.5 mm (0.30 in) D X: 143.6 mm (5.65 in) H 70.9 mm (2.79 in) W 7.7 mm (0.30 in) D Weight Weight 1st gen and 3GS: 135 g (4.

8 oz) 3G: 133 g (4.7 oz) 4: 137 g (4.8 oz) 4S: 140 g (4.9 oz) 5 and 5S: 112 g (4.0 oz) 5C: 132 g (4.7 oz) 6: 129 g (4.6 oz) 6 Plus: 172 g (6.1 oz) 6S: 143 g (5.0 oz) 6S Plus: 192 g (6.8 oz) SE: 113 g (4.0 oz) 7: 138 g (4.9 oz) 7 Plus: 188 g (6.6 oz) 8: 148 g (5.2 oz) 8 Plus: 202 g (7.1 oz) X: 174 g (6.1 oz) Related articles iPad iPod Touch Comparison Website apple.

com/iphone/ iPhone (/ˈaɪfoʊn/ EYE-fohn) is a line of smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. They run Apple's iOS mobile operating system. The first-generation iPhone was released on June 29, 2007, and there have been multiple new hardware iterations with new iOS releases since. The user interface is built around the device's multi-touch screen, including a virtual keyboard. The iPhone has Wi-Fi and can connect to cellular networks.

An iPhone can shoot video (though this was not a standard feature until the iPhone 3GS), take photos, play music, send and receive email, browse the web, send and receive text messages, follow GPS navigation, record notes, perform mathematical calculations, and receive visual voicemail. Other functionality, such as video games, reference works, and social networking, can be enabled by downloading mobile apps.

As of January 2017, Apple's App Store contained more than 2.2 million applications available for the iPhone. Apple has released eleven generations of iPhone models, each accompanied by one of the eleven major releases of the iOS operating system. The original first-generation iPhone was a GSM phone and established design precedents, such as a button placement that has persisted throughout all releases and a screen size maintained for the next four iterations.

The iPhone 3G added 3G network support, and was followed by the 3GS with improved hardware, the 4 with a metal chassis, higher display resolution and front-facing camera, and the 4S with improved hardware and the voice assistant Siri. The iPhone 5 featured a taller, 4-inch display and Apple's newly introduced Lightning connector. In 2013, Apple released the 5S with improved hardware and a fingerprint reader, and the lower-cost 5C, a version of the 5 with colored plastic casings instead of metal.

They were followed by the larger iPhone 6, with models featuring 4.7 and 5.5-inch displays. The iPhone 6S was introduced the following year, which featured hardware upgrades and support for pressure-sensitive touch inputs, as well as the SE—which featured hardware from the 6S but the smaller form factor of the 5S. In 2016, Apple unveiled the iPhone 7 and 7 Plus, which add water resistance, improved system and graphics performance, a new rear dual-camera setup on the Plus model, and new color options, while removing the 3.

5 mm headphone jack found on previous models. The iPhone 8 and 8 Plus were released in 2017, adding a glass back and an improved screen and camera. The iPhone X was released alongside the 8 and 8 Plus, with its highlights being a near bezel-less design, an improved camera and a new facial recognition system, named Face ID, but having no home button, and therefore, no Touch ID. The original iPhone was described as "revolutionary" and a "game-changer" for the mobile phone industry.

Newer iterations have also garnered praise, and the iPhone's success has been credited with helping to make Apple one of the world's most valuable publicly traded companies. History and availability Main article: History of iPhone See also: List of iOS devices Operating System Support iPhone Released with Release date Final supported OS Support ended Support Lifespan iPhone (1st Gen.) iPhone OS 1.

0 June 29, 2007 iPhone OS 3.1.3 June 20, 2010 2 years, 11 months iPhone 3G iPhone OS 2.0 July 11, 2008 iOS 4.2.1 March 3, 2011 2 years, 7 months iPhone 3GS iPhone OS 3.0 June 19, 2009 iOS 6.1.6 September 18, 2013 4 years, 2 months iPhone 4 iOS 4.0 June 21, 2010 iOS 7.1.2 September 17, 2014 4 years, 2 months iPhone 4S iOS 5.0 October 14, 2011 iOS 9.3.5 September 12, 2016 4 years, 10 months iPhone 5 iOS 6.

0 September 21, 2012 iOS 10.3.3 September 18, 2017 4 years, 11 months iPhone 5C iOS 7.0 September 20, 2013 iOS 10.3.3 September 18, 2017 3 years, 11 months iPhone 5S iOS 7.0 September 20, 2013 iOS 11.2 (current) > 4 years, 3 months iPhone 6 (Plus) iOS 8.0 September 19, 2014 iOS 11.2 (current) > 3 years, 3 months iPhone 6S (Plus) iOS 9.0 September 25, 2015 iOS 11.2 (current) > 2 years, 3 months iPhone SE iOS 9.

3 March 31, 2016 iOS 11.2 (current) > 1 year, 9 months iPhone 7 (Plus) iOS 10.0 September 16, 2016 iOS 11.2 (current) > 1 year, 3 months iPhone 8 (Plus) iOS 11.0 September 22, 2017 iOS 11.2 (current) > 3 months iPhone X iOS 11.0.1 November 3, 2017 iOS 11.2 (current) > 2 months Legend:   Discontinued and unsupported   Discontinued, but still supported   Current or still sold Development of what was to become the iPhone began in 2004, when Apple started to gather a team of 1,000 employees to work on the highly confidential "Project Purple",[15] including Jonathan Ive, the designer behind the iMac and iPod.

[16] Apple CEO Steve Jobs steered the original focus away from a tablet (which Apple eventually revisited in the form of the iPad) and towards a phone.[17] Apple created the device during a secretive collaboration with Cingular Wireless (which became AT&T Mobility) at the time—at an estimated development cost of US$150 million over thirty months.[18] According to Steve Jobs, the "i" word in "iMac" (and therefore "iPod", "iPhone" and "iPad") stands for internet, individual, instruct, inform and inspire.

[19][20] Apple rejected the "design by committee" approach that had yielded the Motorola ROKR E1, a largely unsuccessful collaboration with Motorola. Among other deficiencies, the ROKR E1's firmware limited storage to only 100 iTunes songs to avoid competing with Apple's iPod nano.[21][22] Cingular gave Apple the liberty to develop the iPhone's hardware and software in-house[23][24] and even paid Apple a fraction of its monthly service revenue (until the iPhone 3G),[25] in exchange for four years of exclusive US sales, until 2011.

[26] Jobs unveiled the iPhone to the public on January 9, 2007, at the Macworld 2007 convention at the Moscone Center in San Francisco.[27] The two initial models, a 4 GB model priced at US$499 and an 8 GB model at US$599 (both requiring a two-year contract), went on sale in the United States on June 29, 2007, at 6:00 pm local time, while hundreds of customers lined up outside the stores nationwide.

[28] The passionate reaction to the launch of the iPhone resulted in sections of the media dubbing it the 'Jesus phone'.[29][30] Following this successful release in the US, the first generation iPhone was made available in the UK, France, and Germany in November 2007, and Ireland and Austria in the spring of 2008. Worldwide iPhone availability:   iPhone available since its original release   iPhone available since the release of iPhone 3G   Coming soon On July 11, 2008, Apple released the iPhone 3G in twenty-two countries, including the original six.

[31] Apple released the iPhone 3G in upwards of eighty countries and territories.[32] Apple announced the iPhone 3GS on June 8, 2009, along with plans to release it later in June, July, and August, starting with the US, Canada and major European countries on June 19. Many would-be users objected to the iPhone's cost,[33] and 40% of users had household incomes over US$100,000.[34] The back of the original first generation iPhone was made of aluminum with a black plastic accent.

The iPhone 3G and 3GS feature a full plastic back to increase the strength of the GSM signal.[35] The iPhone 3G was available in an 8 GB black model, or a black or white option for the 16 GB model. The iPhone 3GS was available in both colors, regardless of storage capacity. The iPhone 4 has an aluminosilicate glass front and back with a stainless steel edge that serves as the antennas. It was at first available in black; the white version was announced, but not released until April 2011, 10 months later.

Users of the iPhone 4 reported dropped/disconnected telephone calls when holding their phones in a certain way. This became known as antennagate.[36] On January 11, 2011, Verizon announced during a media event that it had reached an agreement with Apple and would begin selling a CDMA iPhone 4. Verizon said it would be available for pre-order on February 3, with a release set for February 10.[37][38] In February 2011, the Verizon iPhone accounted for 4.

5% of all iPhone ad impressions in the US on Millennial Media's mobile ad network.[39] From 2007 to 2011, Apple spent $647 million on advertising for the iPhone in the US.[15] On Tuesday, September 27, Apple sent invitations for a press event to be held October 4, 2011, at 10:00 am at the Cupertino Headquarters to announce details of the next generation iPhone, which turned out to be iPhone 4S. Over 1 million 4S models were sold in the first 24 hours after its release in October 2011.

[40] Due to large volumes of the iPhone being manufactured and its high selling price, Apple became the largest mobile handset vendor in the world by revenue, in 2011, surpassing long-time leader Nokia.[41] American carrier C Spire Wireless announced that it would be carrying the iPhone 4S on October 19, 2011.[42] In January 2012, Apple reported its best quarterly earnings ever, with 53% of its revenue coming from the sale of 37 million iPhones, at an average selling price of nearly $660.

The average selling price has remained fairly constant for most of the phone's lifespan, hovering between $622 and $660.[43] The production price of the iPhone 4S was estimated by IHS iSuppli, in October 2011, to be $188, $207 and $245, for the 16 GB, 32 GB and 64 GB models, respectively.[44] Labor costs are estimated at between $12.50 and $30 per unit, with workers on the iPhone assembly line making $1.

78 an hour.[45] In February 2012, ComScore reported that 12.4% of US mobile subscribers used an iPhone.[46] Approximately 6.4 million iPhones are active in the US alone.[34] On September 12, 2012, Apple announced the iPhone 5. It has a 4-inch display, up from its predecessors' 3.5-inch screen. The device comes with the same 326 pixels per inch found in the iPhone 4 and 4S. The iPhone 5 has the SoC A6 processor, the chip is 22% smaller than the iPhone 4S' A5 and is twice as fast, doubling the graphics performance of its predecessor.

The device is 18% thinner than the iPhone 4S, measuring 7.6 millimetres (0.3 in), and is 20% lighter at 112 grams (4 oz). On July 6, 2013, it was reported that Apple was in talks with Korean mobile carrier SK Telecom to release the next generation iPhone with LTE Advanced technology.[47] On July 22, 2013, the company's suppliers said that Apple is testing out larger screens for the iPhone and iPad.

"Apple has asked for prototype smartphone screens larger than four inches and has also asked for screen designs for a new tablet device measuring slightly less than 13 inches diagonally, they said."[48] On September 10, 2013, Apple unveiled two new iPhone models during a highly anticipated press event in Cupertino. The iPhone 5C, a mid-range-priced version of the handset that is designed to increase accessibility due to its price is available in five colors (green, blue, yellow, pink, and white) and is made of plastic.

The iPhone 5S comes in three colors (black, white, and gold) and the home button is replaced with a fingerprint scanner (Touch ID). Both phones shipped on September 20, 2013.[49] On September 9, 2014, Apple revealed the iPhone 6 and the iPhone 6 Plus at an event in Cupertino. Both devices had a larger screen than their predecessor, at 4.7 and 5.5 inches respectively.[50] In 2016, Apple unveiled the iPhone 7 and 7 Plus, which add water and dust resistance, improved system and graphics performance, a new dual-camera setup on the Plus model, new color options, and remove the 3.

5 mm headphone jack.[51] On September 12, 2017, Apple officially unveiled the iPhone 8 and 8 Plus, which features a new glass design, camera improvements, a True Tone display, wireless charging and improved system performance. It also unveiled the iPhone X, which features a near-bezelless design, face recognition dubbed "Face ID" with facial tracking used for Animojis, an OLED screen with the highest pixel density on an iPhone, a new telephoto lens which works better in low light conditions, and improved cameras for AR.

[52] Sales and profits Apple sold 6.1 million first generation iPhone units over five quarters.[53] Sales in the fourth quarter of 2008, temporarily surpassed those of Research In Motion's (RIM) BlackBerry sales of 5.2 million units, which briefly made Apple the third largest mobile phone manufacturer by revenue, after Nokia and Samsung[54] (However, some of this income is deferred[55]). Recorded sales grew steadily thereafter, and by the end of fiscal year 2010, a total of 73.

5 million iPhones were sold.[56] By 2010, the iPhone had a market share of barely 4% of all cellphones; however, Apple pulled in more than 50% of the total profit that global cellphone sales generate.[57] Apple sold 14.1 million iPhones in the third quarter of 2010, representing a 91% unit growth over the year-ago quarter, which was well ahead of IDC's latest published estimate of 64% growth for the global smartphone market in the September quarter.

Apple's sales surpassed that of Research in Motion's 12.1 million BlackBerry units sold in their most recent quarter ended August 2010.[58] In the United States market alone for the third quarter of 2010, while there were 9.1 million Android-powered smartphones shipped for 43.6% of the market, Apple iOS was the number two phone operating system with 26.2% but the 5.5 million iPhones sold made it the most popular single device.

[59] On March 2, 2011, at the iPad 2 launch event, Apple announced that they had sold 100 million iPhones worldwide.[60] As a result of the success of the iPhone sales volume and high selling price, headlined by the iPhone 4S, Apple became the largest mobile handset vendor in the world by revenue in 2011, surpassing long-time leader Nokia.[41] While the Samsung Galaxy S II proved more popular than the iPhone 4S in parts of Europe, the iPhone 4S was dominant in the United States.

[61] In January 2012, Apple reported its best quarterly earnings ever, with 53% of its revenue coming from the sale of 37 million iPhones, at an average selling price of nearly $660. The average selling price has remained fairly constant for most of the phone's lifespan, hovering between $622 and $660.[43] For the eight largest phone manufacturers in Q1 2012, according to Horace Dediu at Asymco, Apple and Samsung combined to take 99% of industry profits (HTC took the remaining 1%, while RIM, LG, Sony Ericsson, Motorola, and Nokia all suffered losses), with Apple earning 73 cents out of every dollar earned by the phone makers.

As the industry profits grew from $5.3 billion in the first quarter of 2010 to $14.4 billion in the first quarter of 2012 (quadruple the profits in 2007),[62][63] Apple had managed to increase its share of these profits. This is due to increasing carrier subsidies and the high selling prices of the iPhone, which had a negative effect on the wireless carriers (AT&T Mobility, Verizon, and Sprint) who have seen their EBITDA service margins drop as they sold an increasing number of iPhones.

[64][65][66] By the quarter ended March 31, 2012, Apple's sales from the iPhone alone (at $22.7 billion) exceeded the total of Microsoft from all of its businesses ($17.4 billion).[67] In the fourth quarter of 2012, the iPhone 5 and iPhone 4S were the best-selling handsets with sales of 27.4 million (13% of smartphones worldwide) and 17.4 million units, respectively, with the Samsung Galaxy S III in third with 15.

4 million. According to Strategy Analytics' data, this was "an impressive performance, given the iPhone portfolio's premium pricing," adding that the Galaxy S III's global popularity "appears to have peaked" (the Galaxy S III was touted as an iPhone-killer by some in the press when it was released[68][69]). While Samsung has led in worldwide sales of smartphones, Apple's iPhone line has still managed to top Samsung's smartphone offerings in the United States,[70] with 21.

4% share and 37.8% in that market, respectively. iOS grew 3.5% to a 37.8%, while Android slid 1.3% to fall to a 52.3% share.[71] The continued top popularity of the iPhone despite growing Android competition was also attributed to Apple being able to deliver iOS updates over the air, while Android updates are frequently impeded by carrier testing requirements and hardware tailoring, forcing consumers to purchase a new Android smartphone to get the latest version of that OS.

[72] However, by 2013, Apple's market share had fallen to 13.1%, due to the surging popularity of the Android offerings.[73] Apple announced on September 1, 2013, that its iPhone trade-in program would be implemented at all of its 250 specialty stores in the US. For the program to become available, customers must have a valid contract and must purchase a new phone, rather than simply receive credit to be used at a later date.

A significant part of the program's goal is to increase the number of customers who purchase iPhones at Apple stores rather than carrier stores.[74] On September 20, 2013, the sales date of the iPhone 5S and 5C models, the longest ever queue was observed at the New York City flagship Apple store, in addition to prominent queues in San Francisco, US and Canada; however, locations throughout the world were identified for the anticipation of corresponding consumers.

[75] Apple also increased production of the gold-colored iPhone 5S by an additional one-third due to the particularly strong demand that emerged.[76] Apple had decided to introduce a gold model after finding that gold was seen as a popular sign of a luxury product among Chinese customers.[77] Apple released its opening weekend sales results for the 5C and 5S models, showing an all-time high for the product's sales figures, with nine million handsets sold—the previous record was set in 2012, when five million handsets were sold during the opening weekend of the 5 model.

This was the first time that Apple has simultaneously launched two models and the inclusion of China in the list of markets contributed to the record sales result.[78] Apple also announced that, as of September 23, 2013, 200 million devices were running the iOS 7 update, making it the "fastest software upgrade in history."[79] An Apple Store located at the Christiana Mall in Newark, Delaware, US claimed the highest iPhones sales figures in November 2013.

The store's high sales results are due to the absence of a sales tax in the state of Delaware.[80] The finalization of a deal between Apple and China Mobile, the world's largest mobile network, was announced in late December 2013. The multi-year agreement provides iPhone access to over 760 million China Mobile subscribers.[81] In the first quarter of 2014, Apple reported that it had sold 51 million iPhones, an all-time quarterly record, compared to 47.

8 million in the year-ago quarter.[82][83] iPhone Upgrade Program The iPhone Upgrade Program is a 24-month program designed for consumers to be able to get the latest iPhone every year, without paying the whole price up-front. The program consists of "low monthly payments", where consumers will gradually pay for the iPhone they have over a 24-month period, with an opportunity to switch (upgrade) to the new iPhone after 12 months of payment have passed.

Once 12 months have passed, consumers can trade their current iPhone with a new one, and the payments are transferred from the old device to the new device, and the program "restarts" with a new 24-month period.[84] Additional features of the program include unlocked handsets, which means consumers are free to pick the network carrier they want, and two-year AppleCare+ protection, which includes "hardware repairs, software support, and coverage for up to two incidents of accidental damage".

[84][85] Criticism of the program includes the potential endless cycle of payments, with The Huffington Post's Damon Beres writing, "Complete the full 24-month payment cycle, and you're stuck with an outdated phone. Upgrade every 12 months, and you'll never stop owing Apple money for iPhones". Additionally, the program is limited to just the iPhone hardware; cell phone service from a network operator is not included.

[86] Legacy Before the release of the iPhone, handset manufacturers such as Nokia and Motorola were enjoying record sales of cell phones based more on fashion and brand rather than technological innovation.[87] The smartphone market, dominated at the time by BlackBerry OS and Windows Mobile devices, was a "staid, corporate-led smartphone paradigm" focused on enterprise needs. Phones at the time were designed around carrier and business limits which were conservative with regards to bandwidth usage and battery life.

[88][89] Phones were sold in a very large number of models, often segmented by marketing strategy, confusing customers and sapping engineering resources.[90][91] For example, phones marketed at business were often deliberately stripped of cameras or the ability to play music and games.[92] Apple's approach was to deliberately simplify its product line by offering just one model a year for all customers, while making it an expensive, high-end product.

Apple's marketing, developing from the success of iPod campaigns, allowed the phone to become a mass-market product with many buyers on launch day. Some market research has found that, unusually for a technology product, iPhone users are disproportionately female.[93]Ars Technica noted in 2012 that Apple had avoided 'patronizing' marketing to female customers, a practice used (often to sell low-quality, high-priced products) by many of its competitors.

[94] When then-CEO of Research in Motion Mike Lazaridis pried open an iPhone, his impression was of a Mac stuffed into a cellphone, as it used much more memory and processing power than the smartphones on the market at the time.[88][89] With its capacitive touchscreen and consumer-friendly design, the iPhone fundamentally changed the mobile industry, with Steve Jobs proclaiming in 2007, that the phone was not just a communication tool but a way of life.

[95] The dominant mobile operating systems at the time such as Symbian, BlackBerry OS, and Windows Mobile were not designed to handle additional tasks beyond communication and basic functions. These operating systems never focused on applications and developers, and due to infighting among manufacturers as well as the complexity of developing on their low-memory hardware, they never developed a thriving ecosystem like Apple's App Store or Android's Google Play.

[95][96]IPhone OS (renamed iOS in 2010) was designed as a robust OS with capabilities such as multitasking and graphics in order to meet future consumer demands.[92] Many services were provided by mobile carriers, who often extensively customized devices. Meanwhile, Apple's decision to base its OS on OS X had the unexpected benefit of allowing OS X developers to rapidly expand into iOS development.

[97] Rival manufacturers have been forced to spend more on software and development costs to catch up to the iPhone. The iPhone's success has led to a decline in sales of high-end fashion phones and business-oriented smartphones such as Vertu and BlackBerry, as well as Nokia.[95][98] Nokia realised the limitations of its operating system Symbian and attempted to develop a more advanced system, Maemo, without success.

It ultimately agreed to a technology-sharing deal and then a takeover from Microsoft.[99] Prior to the iPhone, "Handsets were viewed largely as cheap, disposable lures, massively subsidized to snare subscribers and lock them into using the carriers' proprietary services." However, according to Wired, "Apple retained complete control over the design, manufacturing, and marketing of the iPhone", meaning that it and not the carrier would control the software updates, and by extension security patches.

By contrast, Google has allowed carriers and OEMs to dictate the "pace of upgrades and pre-load phones with their own software on top of Android". As a result, many Android OEMs often lag months behind Google's release of the next iteration of Android; although Nexus and Pixel devices are guaranteed two years of operating system updates and a third addition year for security. However, Apple has supported older iterations of iPhones for over four years.

[26] In December 2017, there were reports that Apple has been using a policy of slowing down the speed of its older iPhones when issuing operating system upgrades.[100] It has spurred allegations that the firm has been using this as a tactic to prompt users of older iPhones to buy newer models.[100] Production Up to the iPhone 4, all iPhone models, as well as other iOS devices were manufactured exclusively by Foxconn, based in Taiwan.

In 2011, after Tim Cook became CEO of the company, Apple changed its outsourcing strategy, for the first time increasing its supply partners. The iPhone 4s in 2012 was the first model which was manufactured simultaneously by two stand-alone companies: Foxconn as well as Pegatron, also based in Taiwan. Although Foxconn is still responsible for the larger share of production, Pegatron's orders have been slowly increased, with the company being tasked with producing a part of the iPhone 5C line in 2013, and 30% of the iPhone 6 devices in 2014.

The 6 Plus model is being produced solely by Foxconn.[101] Hardware Screen and input The touchscreen on the first five generations is a 9 cm (3.5 in) liquid crystal display with scratch-resistant glass, while the one on the iPhone 5 is four inches.[8] The capacitive touchscreen is designed for a bare finger, or multiple fingers for multi-touch sensing. The screens on the first three generations have a resolution of 320×480 (HVGA) at 163 ppi; those on the iPhone 4 and iPhone 4S have a resolution of 640×960 at 326 ppi; the 4-inch models, with 640×1136 at 326 ppi; the 4.

7-inch models, with 750×1334 at 326 ppi; and the 5.5-inch models, with 1080×1920 at 401 ppi. The initial models were using twisted-nematic (TN) LCDs. Starting with iPhone 4, the technology was changed to in-plane switching (IPS) LCDs. The iPhone 5 model's screen results in an aspect ratio of approximately 16:9. The iPhone X is the first iPhone to use an OLED display. It has a near bezel-less screen with a ~19.

5:9 aspect ratio.[102] The touch and gesture features of the iPhone are based on technology originally developed by FingerWorks.[103] Most gloves and styli prevent the necessary electrical conductivity;[104][105][106][107] although capacitive styli can be used with iPhone's finger-touch screen. The iPhone 3GS and later also feature a fingerprint-resistant oleophobic coating.[108] The top and side of an iPhone 5S, externally identical to the iPhone 5.

From left to right, sides: wake/sleep button, silence switch, volume up, and volume down. The iPhone has a minimal hardware user interface, with most models featuring five buttons. The only physical menu button is situated directly below the display, and is called the "Home button" because it's primary function is to close the active app and navigates to the home screen of the interface. Earlier models included a rounded square, reminiscent of the shape of icons on the home screen, however, new models which include Apple's fingerprint recognition feature Touch ID (which use the Home button as the fingerprint sensor) have no symbol.

The iPhone X doesn't have a Home button but instead Face ID, a facial recognition authentication method.[109] A multi-function sleep/wake button is located on the top of the device. It serves as the unit's power button, and also controls phone calls. When a call is received, pressing the sleep/wake button once silences the ringtone, and when pressed twice transfers the call to voicemail. Situated on the left spine are the volume adjustment controls.

The iPhone 4 has two separate circular buttons to increase and decrease the volume; all earlier models house two switches under a single plastic panel, known as a rocker switch, which could reasonably be counted as either one or two buttons. Directly above the volume controls is a ring/silent switch that when engaged mutes telephone ringing, alert sounds from new & sent emails, text messages, and other push notifications, camera shutter sounds, Voice Memo sound effects, phone lock/unlock sounds, keyboard clicks, and spoken auto-corrections.

This switch does not mute alarm sounds from the Clock application, and in some countries or regions it will not mute the camera shutter or Voice Memo sound effects.[110] All buttons except Home were made of plastic on the original first generation iPhone and metal on all later models. The touchscreen furnishes the remainder of the user interface. A software update in January 2008[111] allowed the first-generation iPhone to use cell tower and Wi-Fi network locations trilateration,[112] despite lacking GPS hardware.

Since the iPhone 3G generation, the iPhone employs A-GPS operated by the United States. Since the iPhone 4S generation the device also supports the GLONASS global positioning system, which is operated by Russia. The iPhone 6S and 6S Plus, introduced in 2015, feature "force-touch" displays which allows the screen to recognize how hard it is being pressed. An example of how this technology will be used is lightly pressing the screen to preview a photograph and pressing down to take it.

Sensors Latest iPhone devices feature nine sensors, which are used to adjust the screen based on operating conditions, enable motion-controlled games, and location-based services. Proximity sensor A proximity sensor deactivates the display and touchscreen when the device is brought near the face during a call. This is done to save battery power and to prevent inadvertent inputs from the user's face and ears.

Ambient light sensor An ambient light sensor adjusts the display brightness which saves battery power and prevents the screen from being too bright or too dark. Accelerometer A 3-axis accelerometer senses the orientation of the phone and changes the screen accordingly, allowing the user to easily switch between portrait and landscape mode.[113] Photo browsing, web browsing, and music playing support both upright and left or right widescreen orientations.

[114] Unlike the iPad, the iPhone does not rotate the screen when turned upside-down, with the Home button above the screen, unless the running program has been specifically designed to do so. The 3.0 update added landscape support for still other applications, such as email, and introduced shaking the unit as a form of input.[115][116] The accelerometer can also be used to control third-party apps, notably games.

It is also used for fitness tracking purposes, primarily as a pedometer. Magnetometer A magnetometer is built-in since the iPhone 3GS, which is used to measure the strength and direction of the magnetic field in the vicinity of the device. Sometimes certain devices or radio signals can interfere with the magnetometer requiring users to either move away from the interference or re-calibrate by moving the device in a figure-eight motion.

Since the iPhone 3GS, the iPhone also features a Compass app which was unique at time of release, showing a compass that points in the direction of the magnetic field. Gyroscopic sensor Beginning with the iPhone 4, Apple's smartphones also include a gyroscopic sensor, enhancing its perception of how it is moved. Radio Previous iPhone models contained a chip capable of receiving radio signals;[117] however, Apple has the FM radio feature switched off because there was no antenna connected to the chip.

Later iterations of the iPhone (starting with the iPhone 7), however, does not contain radio chips at all.[118] A campaign called "Free Radio On My Phone" was started to encourage cellphone manufacturers such as Apple to enable the radio on the phones they manufacture, reasons cited were that radio drains less power and is useful in an emergency such as the 2016 Fort McMurray Wildfire.[119] Fingerprint sensor All iPhone models starting from iPhone 5S (excluding the iPhone 5C and iPhone X) feature Apple's fingerprint recognition sensor.

It is used for unlocking the device and authenticating purchases (since the iPhone 6) using Touch ID. It is located in the home button. Barometer Included on the iPhone 6 and later (excluding the iPhone SE), a barometer used to determine air pressure, and elevation from the device.[120] Facial recognition sensor The iPhone X features a facial recognition sensor, named the TrueDepth camera system. It is used for unlocking the device and for authenticating purchases using Face ID.

It can also be used for Animojis and AR. Audio and output From left to right is the headphone jack, microphone, Lightning connector, and built-in speaker on the base of the iPhone 5S. On the bottom of the iPhone, there is a speaker to the left of the dock connector and a microphone to the right. There is an additional loudspeaker above the screen that serves as an earpiece during phone calls.

The iPhone 4 includes an additional microphone at the top of the unit for noise cancellation, and switches the placement of the microphone and speaker on the base on the unit—the speaker is on the right.[121] Volume controls are located on the left side of all iPhone models and as a slider in the iPod application. The 3.5mm TRRS connector for the headphones is located on the top left corner of the device for the first five generations (original through 4S), after which time it was moved to the bottom left corner.

[122] The headphone socket on the first-generation iPhone is recessed into the casing, making it incompatible with most headsets without the use of an adapter.[123] Subsequent generations eliminated the problem by using a flush-mounted headphone socket. Cars equipped with an auxiliary jack allow handsfree use of the iPhone while driving as a substitute for Bluetooth. The iPhone 7 and later have no 3.

5mm headphone jack,[124] and instead headsets must connect to the iPhone by Bluetooth, use Apple's Lightning port (which has replaced the 3.5mm headphone jack), or (for traditional headsets) use the Lightning to 3.5mm headphone jack adapter, which is included with all iPhone 7 and later units, and plugs into the Lightning port. Apple's own headset has a multipurpose button near the microphone that can play or pause music, skip tracks, and answer or end phone calls without touching the iPhone.

Some third-party headsets designed for the iPhone also include the microphone and control button.[125] The current headsets also provide volume controls, which are only compatible with more recent models.[126] A fourth ring in the audio jack carries this extra information. The built-in Bluetooth 2.x+EDR supports wireless earpieces and headphones, which requires the HSP profile. Stereo audio was added in the 3.

0 update for hardware that supports A2DP.[115][116] While non-sanctioned third-party solutions exist, the iPhone does not officially support the OBEX file transfer protocol.[127] The lack of these profiles prevents iPhone users from exchanging multimedia files, such as pictures, music and videos, with other Bluetooth-enabled cell phones. Composite[128] or component[129] video at up to 576i and stereo audio can be output from the dock connector using an adapter sold by Apple.

IPhone 4 also supports 1024×768 VGA output[130] without audio, and HDMI output,[131] with stereo audio, via dock adapters. The iPhone did not support voice recording until the 3.0 software update.[115][116] Battery Replacing the battery requires disassembling the iPhone unit and exposing the internal hardware The iPhone features an internal rechargeable lithium-ion battery. Like an iPod, but unlike most other mobile phones at the time of its launch, the battery is not user-replaceable.

[123][132] The iPhone can be charged when connected to a computer for syncing across the included USB to dock connector cable, similar to charging an iPod. Alternatively, a USB to AC adapter (or "wall charger," also included) can be connected to the cable to charge directly from an AC outlet. Some models of the iPhone support wireless charging.[133] Apple runs tests on preproduction units to determine battery life.

Apple's website says that the battery life "is designed to retain up to 80% of its original capacity after 400 full charge and discharge cycles",[134] which is comparable to iPod batteries. The battery life of early models of the iPhone has been criticized by several technology journalists as insufficient and less than Apple's claims.[135][136][137][138] This is also reflected by a J. D. Power and Associates customer satisfaction survey, which gave the "battery aspects" of the iPhone 3G its lowest rating of two out of five stars.

[139][140] If the battery malfunctions or dies prematurely, the phone can be returned to Apple and replaced for free while still under warranty.[141] The warranty lasts one year from purchase and can be extended to two years with AppleCare. The battery replacement service and its pricing was not made known to buyers until the day the product was launched;[142][143] it is similar to how Apple (and third parties) replace batteries for iPods.

The Foundation for Taxpayer and Consumer Rights, a consumer advocate group, has sent a complaint to Apple and AT&T over the fee that consumers have to pay to have the battery replaced.[142] Apple reduced the price of an out-of-warranty iPhone battery replacement to $29.[144] Since July 2007, third-party battery replacement kits have been available[145] at a much lower price than Apple's own battery replacement program.

These kits often include a small screwdriver and an instruction leaflet, but as with many newer iPod models the battery in the first generation iPhone has been soldered in. Therefore, a soldering iron is required to install the new battery. The iPhone 3G uses a different battery fitted with a connector that is easier to replace.[146] The iPhone X features a different battery, with two battery cells, and the adhesive pull tabs are adhered to the sides instead of folded over the top, therefore making repairs a little more difficult than before.

[147] A patent filed by the corporation, published in late July 2013, revealed the development of a new iPhone battery system that uses location data in combination with data on the user's habits to moderate the handsets power settings accordingly. Apple is working towards a power management system that will provide features such as the ability to estimate the length of time a user will be away from a power source to modify energy usage and a detection function that adjusts the charging rate to best suit the type of power source that is being used.

[148] Controversy On December 28, 2017, amidst many complaints about older iPhone models slowing down when new ones are released, Apple released a communication to its customers on its website, acknowledging the effect that old batteries have on the iPhone's performance.[144] The company offered $29 battery replacements as a solution.[149] The iPhone 4 is the first generation to have two cameras.

The LED flash for the rear-facing camera (top) and the forward-facing camera (bottom) are available on the iPhone 4 and subsequent models. Camera The first-generation iPhone and iPhone 3G have a fixed-focus 2.0-megapixel camera on the back for digital photos. It has no optical zoom, flash or autofocus, and does not natively support video recording. (iPhone (original) & 3G can record video via a third-party app available on the App Store, and jailbreaking also allows users to do so.

) iPhone OS 2.0 introduced geotagging for photos. The iPhone 3GS has a 3.2-megapixel camera with autofocus, auto white balance, and auto macro (up to 10 cm). Manufactured by OmniVision, the camera can also capture 640×480 (VGA resolution) video at 30 frames per second.[150] The video can be cropped on the iPhone and directly uploaded to YouTube or other services. The iPhone 4 introduced a 5.0-megapixel camera (2592×1936 pixels) that can record video at 720p resolution, considered high-definition.

It also has a backside-illuminated sensor that can capture pictures in low light and an LED flash that can stay lit while recording video.[151] It is the first iPhone that can natively do high dynamic range photography.[152] The iPhone 4 also has a second camera on the front that can take VGA photos and record SD video. Saved recordings may be synced to the host computer, attached to email, or (where supported) sent by MMS.

The iPhone 4S' camera can shoot 8-MP stills and 1080p video, can be accessed directly from the lock screen, and can be triggered using the volume-up button as a shutter trigger. The built-in gyroscope can stabilize the image while recording video. The iPhone 5 and iPhone 4S, running iOS 6 or later, can take panoramas using the built-in camera app,[153] and the iPhone 5 can also take still photos while recording video.

[154] The camera on the iPhone 5 reportedly shows purple haze when the light source is just out of frame,[155] although Consumer Reports said it "is no more prone to purple hazing on photos shot into a bright light source than its predecessor or than several Android phones with fine cameras..."[156] On all five model generations, the phone can be configured to bring up the camera app by quickly pressing the home key twice.

[157] On all iPhones running iOS 5, it can also be accessed from the lock screen directly. The iPhone 5S features True Tone Flash, which has two LED lights, white and amber, that will improve white balance and will be adjusted in 1,000 combinations. The iPhone 6 and 6 Plus included phase detection autofocus, while the 6 Plus has Optical Image Stabilization. Both models can now shoot 1080p videos at 60 frames per second.

The iPhone 6S and 6S Plus are outfitted with a 12 megapixel camera, with 4K HD video capability. It also updated its front camera to five megapixels, which is good for capturing self-portraits. The user may change the resolution between 4K and 1080p from Settings. The iPhone 7 features OIS on its rear camera, a feature that was previously exclusive to the Plus models, and the 7 Plus is the first iPhone to feature dual-lens cameras (both 12 MP), and they both have a 7 MP front-facing camera.

The second camera on the iPhone 7 Plus is a telephoto lens, which enables 2x optical zoom and up to 10x digital zoom. The rear cameras on the 7 and 7 Plus both have a f/1.8 aperture.[124] It also has a new quad-LED True Tone flash, which is brighter compared to its predecessors. The iPhone 8 camera remains largely the same as its predecessor, but it features a larger sensor, and a newer color filter.

The camera can also now record 4K at 60 and 24 frames per second, and slow-mo at 1080p in 240 frames per second. The new camera system also enables Portrait Lighting, which defines the light in a scene. It also features a quad-LED True Tone flash, but it now has 2× better light uniformity and Slow Sync.[158] The iPhone X camera is almost the same as the iPhone 8's camera, but the telephoto lens now has an aperture of f/2.

4 and optical image stabilization.[159] The front camera also has Portrait Mode and Portrait Lighting, due to the new TrueDepth camera system.[160] Storage The iPhone was initially released with two options for internal storage size: 4 GB or 8 GB. On September 5, 2007, Apple discontinued the 4 GB models.[161] On February 5, 2008, Apple added a 16 GB model.[162] The iPhone 3G was available in 16 GB and 8 GB.

[163] The iPhone 3GS came in 16 GB and 32 GB variants and remained available in 8 GB until September 2012, more than three years after its launch. The iPhone 4 was available in 16 GB and 32 GB variants, as well as an 8 GB variant to be sold alongside the iPhone 4S at a reduced price point. The iPhone 4S was available in three sizes: 16 GB, 32 GB and 64 GB. The iPhone 5 and 5S were available in the same three sizes previously available to the iPhone 4S: 16 GB, 32 GB, and 64 GB.

The lower-cost iPhone 5C model was initially available in 16 GB and 32 GB models; an 8 GB model was added later. The iPhone 6 and 6S are available in three sizes: 16 GB, 64 GB, and 128 GB. The iPhone SE is available in 16 GB and 64 GB variants.[164] By the time the iPhone 7 and 7 Plus was released, Apple ditched the based model from 16 GB to 32 GB as the base storage. Both 7 & 7 Plus has a configuration of 32, 128, & 256 GB storage option.

[165] Apple doubled the storage on the iPhone 6S & 6S Plus in two configurations (32 GB & 128 GB), as well as the iPhone SE six months later. SIM card An iPhone 5S with the SIM slot open. The SIM ejector tool is still placed in the eject hole. GSM models of the iPhone use a SIM card to identify themselves to the GSM network. The SIM sits in a tray, which is inserted into a slot at the top of the device.

The SIM tray can be ejected with a paper clip or the "SIM ejector tool" (a simple piece of die-cut sheet metal) included with the iPhone 3G and 3GS in the United States and with all models elsewhere in the world.[166][167] Some iPhone models shipped with a SIM ejector tool which was fabricated from an alloy dubbed "Liquidmetal".[168] In most countries, the iPhone is usually sold with a SIM lock, which prevents the iPhone from being used on a different mobile network.

[169] The GSM iPhone 4 features a MicroSIM card that is located in a slot on the right side of the device.[170] The CDMA model of the iPhone 4, just the same as any other CDMA-only cell phone, does not use a SIM card or have a SIM card slot. An iPhone 4S activated on a CDMA carrier, however, does have a SIM card slot but does not rely on a SIM card for activation on that CDMA network. A CDMA-activated iPhone 4S usually has a carrier-approved roaming SIM preloaded in its SIM slot at the time of purchase that is used for roaming on certain carrier-approved international GSM networks only.

The SIM slot is locked to only use the roaming SIM card provided by the CDMA carrier.[171] In the case of Verizon, for example, one can request that the SIM slot be unlocked for international use by calling their support number and requesting an international unlock if their account has been in good standing for the past 60 days.[172] This method only unlocks the iPhone 4S for use on international carriers.

An iPhone 4S that has been unlocked in this way will reject any non international SIM cards (AT&T Mobility or T-Mobile USA, for example). The iPhone 5 and later iPhones use the nano-SIM, in order to save more space for internal components. Liquid contact indicators All iPhones (as well as many other devices by Apple) have a small disc at the bottom of the headphone jack that changes from white to red on contact with water; the iPhone 3G and later models also have a similar indicator at the bottom of the dock connector.

[173] Because Apple warranties do not cover water damage, employees examine the indicators before approving warranty repair or replacement. The iPhone's indicators are more exposed than those in some mobile phones from other manufacturers, which carry them in a more protected location, such as beneath the battery behind a battery cover. These indicators can be triggered during routine use, by an owner's sweat,[174] steam in a bathroom, and other light environmental moisture.

[175] Criticism led Apple to change its water damage policy for iPhones and similar products, allowing customers to request further internal inspection of the phone to verify if internal liquid damage sensors were triggered.[176] Included items The contents of the box of an iPhone 4. From left to right: iPhone 4 in plastic holder, written documentation, and (top to bottom) headset, USB cable, wall charger.

All iPhone models include written documentation, and a dock connector to USB cable. The first generation and 3G iPhones also came with a cleaning cloth. The first generation iPhone included a stereo headset (earbuds and a microphone) and a plastic dock to hold the unit upright while charging and syncing. The iPhone 3G includes a similar headset plus a SIM eject tool (the first generation model requires a paperclip).

The iPhone 3GS includes the SIM eject tool and a revised headset, which adds volume buttons (not functional with previous iPhone versions).[126][177] The iPhone 3G and 3GS are compatible with the same dock, sold separately, but not the first generation model's dock.[178] All versions include a USB power adapter, or "wall charger," which allows the iPhone to charge from an AC outlet. The iPhone 3G and iPhone 3GS sold in North America, Japan, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru[179][180] include an ultracompact USB power adapter.

Payments Main article: Apple Pay In September 2014, with the launch of the iPhone 6, Apple announced Apple Pay, a mobile payments system. The feature, aimed to "revolutionize" the way users pay, uses an NFC chip, Touch ID fingerprint scanner, Apple's Wallet app, and a dedicated "Secure Element" chip for encrypted payment information to make purchases at participating stores, both physical and online.

[181] Software Main articles: iOS and iOS version history The iPhone runs an operating system known as iOS (formerly iPhone OS).[182] It is a variant of the same Darwin operating system core that is found in Mac OS X. Also included is the "Core Animation" software component from Mac OS X v10.5 Leopard. Together with the PowerVR hardware (and on the iPhone 3GS, OpenGL ES 2.0), it is responsible for the interface's motion graphics.

The iPhone comes with a set of bundled applications developed by Apple,[183] and supports downloading third-party applications through the App Store.[184] Apple provides free[185] updates to the operating system for the iPhone either wirelessly or through iTunes.[186] Major new updates have historically accompanied new models.[187][188] The size of the operating system depends on version. While iOS 8 required over 4.

5 GB, its successor required only 1.3 GB.[189] Interface The interface is based around the home screen, a graphical list of available applications. iPhone applications normally run one at a time. Starting with the iPhone 4, a primitive version of multitasking came into play. Users could double click the home button to select recently opened applications.[190] However, the apps never ran in the background.

Starting with iOS 7, though, apps can truly multitask, and each open application runs in the background when not in use, although most functionality is still available when making a call or listening to music. The home screen can be accessed at any time by a hardware button below the screen, closing the open application in the process.[191] The original iPhone contained the following icons (apps): Messages (SMS and MMS messaging), Calendar, Photos, Camera, YouTube, Stocks, Maps (Google Maps), Weather, Voice Memos, Notes, Clock, Calculator, Settings and iTunes (store).

The App Storewas introduced for the iPhone 3GS and iPhone 4. Compass, FaceTime and GameCenter were added in iOS 4.0 and 4.1 respectively. In iOS 5, Reminders and Newsstand were added, as well as the iPod application split into separate Music and Videos applications. iOS 6 added Passbook as well as an updated version of Maps that relies on data provided by TomTom as well as other sources. YouTube no longer came as a pre-installed application.

Docked at the base of the screen, four icons for Phone, Mail, Safari (Internet), and Music delineate the iPhone's main purposes.[192] On January 15, 2008, Apple released software update 1.1.3, allowing users to create "Web Clips", home screen icons that resemble apps that open a user-defined page in Safari. After the update, iPhone users can rearrange and place icons (by holding down on any icon and moving it to the desired location once they start shaking) on up to nine other adjacent home screens, accessed by a horizontal swipe.

[111] Users can also add and delete icons from the dock, which is the same on every home screen. Each home screen holds up to twenty icons for the first-generation iPhone, 3G, 4 and 4S, while each home screen for iPhone 5 holds up to twenty-four icons due to a larger screen display, and the dock holds up to four icons. Users can delete Web Clips and third-party applications at any time, and may select only certain applications for transfer from iTunes.

Apple's default programs, could only be removed since the iOS 10 update. The 3.0 update adds a system-wide search, known as Spotlight, to the left of the first home screen.[115][116] Almost all input is given through the touch screen, which understands complex gestures using multi-touch. The iPhone's interaction techniques enable the user to move the content up or down by a touch-drag motion of the finger.

For example, zooming in and out of web pages and photos is done by placing two fingers on the screen and spreading them farther apart or bringing them closer together, a gesture known as "pinching". Scrolling through a long list or menu is achieved by sliding a finger over the display from bottom to top, or vice versa to go back. In either case, the list moves as if it is pasted on the outer surface of a wheel, slowly decelerating as if affected by friction.

In this way, the interface simulates the physics of a real object. Unlike previous scrollable views, in which the user pressed a "down" control to move the view "downwards", on iOS the user pushes upwards, as if moving a "plank of wood floating on the water", creating the impression that the user is directly manipulating the content displayed on the screen.[193][194] Other user-centered interactive effects include horizontally sliding sub-selection, the vertically sliding keyboard and bookmarks menu, and widgets that turn around to allow settings to be configured on the other side.

Menu bars are found at the top and bottom of the screen when necessary. Their options vary by program, but always follow a consistent style motif. In menu hierarchies, a "back" button in the top-left corner of the screen displays the name of the parent folder. Phone When making a call, the iPhone presents a number of options, including FaceTime on supported models. The screen is automatically disabled when held close to the face.

The iPhone allows audio conferencing, call holding, call merging, caller ID, and integration with other cellular network features and iPhone functions. For example, if music is playing when a call is received, the music fades out, and fades back in when the call has ended. The proximity sensor shuts off the screen and touch-sensitive circuitry when the iPhone is brought close to the face, both to save battery and prevent unintentional touches.

The iPhone does not support video calling or videoconferencing on versions prior to the fourth generation, as there is only one camera on the opposite side of the screen.[195] The iPhone 4 supports video calling using either the front or back camera over Wi-Fi, a feature Apple calls FaceTime.[196] Voice control, introduced in the iPhone 3GS, allows users to say a contact's name or number and the iPhone will dial it.

[197] The first two models only support voice dialing through third-party applications.[198] The iPhone includes a visual voicemail (in some countries)[199] feature allowing users to view a list of current voicemail messages on-screen without having to call into their voicemail. Unlike most other systems, messages can be listened to and deleted in a non-chronological order by choosing any message from an on-screen list.

A music ringtone feature was introduced in the United States on September 5, 2007. Users can create custom ringtones from songs purchased from the iTunes Store for a small additional fee. The ringtones can be three to 30 seconds long from any part of a song, can fade in and out, pause from half a second to five seconds when looped, or loop continuously. All customizing can be done in iTunes,[200] or with Apple's GarageBand software 4.

1.1 or later (available only on Mac OS X)[201] or third-party tools.[202] With the release of iOS 6, which was released on September 19, 2012, Apple added features that enable the user to have options to decline a phone call when a person is calling them. The user can reply with a message, or to set a reminder to call them back at a later time.[203] Multimedia The layout of the music library is similar to that of an iPod or current Symbian S60 phones.

The iPhone can sort its media library by songs, artists, albums, videos, playlists, genres, composers, podcasts, audiobooks, and compilations. Options are always presented alphabetically, except in playlists, which retain their order from iTunes. The iPhone uses a large font that allows users plenty of room to touch their selection. Users can rotate their device horizontally to landscape mode to access Cover Flow.

Like on iTunes, this feature shows the different album covers in a scroll-through photo library. Scrolling is achieved by swiping a finger across the screen. Alternatively, headset controls can be used to pause, play, skip, and repeat tracks. On the iPhone 3GS, the volume can be changed with the included Apple Earphones, and the Voice Control feature can be used to identify a track, play songs in a playlist or by a specific artist, or create a Genius playlist.

[197] The iPhone supports gapless playback.[204] Like the fifth-generation iPods introduced in 2005, the iPhone can play digital video, allowing users to watch TV shows and movies in widescreen. Double-tapping switches between widescreen and fullscreen video playback. The iPhone allows users to purchase and download songs from the iTunes Store directly to their iPhone. The feature originally required a Wi-Fi network, but now since 2012, can use the cellular data network if one is not available.

[205] The iPhone includes software that allows the user to upload, view, and email photos taken with the camera. The user zooms in and out of photos by sliding two fingers further apart or closer together, much like Safari. The camera application also lets users view the camera roll, the pictures that have been taken with the iPhone's camera. Those pictures are also available in the Photos application, along with any transferred from iPhoto or Aperture on a Mac, or Photoshop on a Windows PC.

Internet connectivity Wikipedia Main Page on the iPhone Safari web browser in landscape mode Internet access is available when the iPhone is connected to a local area Wi-Fi or a wide area GSM or EDGE network, both second-generation (2G) wireless data standards. The iPhone 3G introduced support for third-generation UMTS and HSDPA 3.6,[206] the iPhone 4S introduced support for HSUPA networks (14.

4 Mbit/s), and support for HSDPA 7.2 was introduced in the iPhone 3GS.[207] Networks accessible from iPhone models include 1xRTT (represented by a 1x on the status bar) and GPRS (shown as GPRS on the status bar), EDGE (shown as a capital E on the status bar), UMTS and EV-DO (shown as 3G), a faster version of UMTS and 4G (shown as a 4G symbol on the status bar), and LTE (shown as LTE on the status bar).

[208] AT&T introduced 3G in July 2004,[209] but as late as 2007, Steve Jobs stated that it was still not widespread enough in the US, and the chipsets not energy efficient enough, to be included in the iPhone.[105][210] Support for 802.1X, an authentication system commonly used by university and corporate Wi-Fi networks, was added in the 2.0 version update.[211] By default, the iPhone will ask to join newly discovered Wi-Fi networks and prompt for the password when required.

Alternatively, it can join closed Wi-Fi networks manually.[212] The iPhone will automatically choose the strongest network, connecting to Wi-Fi instead of EDGE when it is available.[213] Similarly, the iPhone 3G and onwards prefer 3G to 2G, and Wi-Fi to either.[214] Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and 3G (on the iPhone 3G onwards) can all be deactivated individually. Airplane mode disables all wireless connections at once, overriding other preferences.

However, once in Airplane mode, one can explicitly enable Wi-Fi and/or Bluetooth modes to join and continue to operate over one or both of those networks while the cellular network transceivers remain off. Safari is the iPhone's native web browser, and it displays pages similar to its Mac and Windows counterparts. Web pages may be viewed in portrait or landscape mode and the device supports automatic zooming by pinching together or spreading apart fingertips on the screen, or by double-tapping text or images.

[215][216] Safari does not allow file downloads except for predefined extensions. The iPhone does not support Flash, which was still popular when the iPhone was introduced.[217]. Consequently, the UK's Advertising Standards Authority adjudicated that an advertisement claiming the iPhone could access "all parts of the internet" should be withdrawn in its current form, on grounds of false advertising.

In a rare public letter in April 2010, Apple CEO Steve Jobs outlined the reasoning behind the absence of Flash on the iPhone (and iPad).[218] The iPhone supports SVG, CSS, HTML Canvas, and Bonjour.[219]. Google Chrome was introduced to the iOS on June 26, 2012, and Opera mini is also available. The Maps application can access Google Maps in map, satellite, or hybrid form. It can also generate directions between two locations, while providing optional real-time traffic information.

During the iPhone's announcement, Jobs demonstrated this feature by searching for nearby Starbucks locations and then placing a prank call to one with a single tap.[220][221] Support for walking directions, public transit, and street view was added in the version 2.2 software update, but no voice-guided navigation.[222] The iPhone 3GS and iPhone 4 can orient the map with its digital compass.[223] Apple also developed a separate application to view YouTube videos on the iPhone, which streams videos after encoding them using the H.

264 codec. Simple weather and stock quotes applications also tap into the Internet. IPhone users can and do access the Internet frequently, and in a variety of places. According to Google, in 2008, the iPhone generated 50 times more search requests than any other mobile handset.[224] According to Deutsche Telekom CEO René Obermann, "The average Internet usage for an iPhone customer is more than 100 megabytes.

This is 30 times the use for our average contract-based consumer customers."[225]Nielsen found that 98% of iPhone users use data services, and 88% use the internet.[34] In China, the iPhone 3G and iPhone 3GS were built and distributed without Wi-Fi.[226] With the introduction of the Verizon iPhone in January 2011, the issue of using internet while on the phone was brought to the public's attention.

Under the two US carriers, internet and phone could be used simultaneously on AT&T networks, whereas Verizon networks only support the use of each separately.[227] However, in 2014, Verizon announced that the iPhone 6 and 6 Plus would allow simultaneous voice and data over its LTE Network.[228] T-Mobile and Sprint have enabled calls over Wi-Fi, with Verizon and AT&T soon doing the same.[229] Text input The virtual keyboard on the first generation iPhone touchscreen For text input, the iPhone implements a virtual keyboard on the touchscreen.

It has automatic spell checking and correction, predictive word capabilities, and a dynamic dictionary that learns new words. The keyboard can predict what word the user is typing and complete it, and correct for the accidental pressing of keys near the presumed desired key.[230] The keys are somewhat larger and spaced farther apart when in landscape mode, which is supported by only a limited number of applications.

Touching a section of text for a brief time brings up a magnifying glass, allowing users to place the cursor in the middle of existing text. The virtual keyboard can accommodate 21 languages, including character recognition for Chinese.[231] Alternative characters with accents (for example, letters from the alphabets of other languages) and emoji can be typed from the keyboard by pressing the letter for two seconds and selecting the alternative character from the popup.

[232] The 3.0 update brought support for cut, copy, or pasting text, as well as landscape keyboards in more applications.[115][116] On iPhone 4S and above, Siri allows dictation. Email and text messages The iPhone also features an email program that supports HTML email, which enables the user to embed photos in an email message. PDF, Word, Excel, and PowerPoint attachments to mail messages can be viewed on the phone.

[233]Yahoo! offers a free push-email service for the iPhone. IMAP (although not Push-IMAP) and POP3 mail standards are also supported, including Microsoft Exchange[234] and Kerio Connect.[235] In the first versions of the iPhone firmware, this was accomplished by opening up IMAP on the Exchange server. Apple has also licensed Microsoft ActiveSync and supports the platform (including push email) with the release of iPhone 2.

0 firmware.[236][237] The iPhone will sync email account settings over from Apple's own Mail application, Microsoft Outlook, and Microsoft Entourage, or it can be manually configured on the device itself. The email program can access almost any IMAP or POP3 account.[238] Text messages are presented chronologically in a mailbox format similar to Mail, which places all text from recipients together with replies.

Text messages are displayed in speech bubbles (similar to iChat) under each recipient's name. The iPhone has built-in support for email message forwarding, drafts, and direct internal camera-to-email picture sending. Support for multi-recipient SMS was added in the 1.1.3 software update.[239] Support for MMS was added in the 3.0 update, but not for the original first generation iPhone[115][116] and not in the US until September 25, 2009.

[240][241] Third-party applications See also: iOS SDK and App Store At WWDC 2007 on June 11, 2007, Apple announced that the iPhone would support third-party web applications using Ajax that share the look and feel of the iPhone interface.[242] On October 17, 2007, Steve Jobs, in an open letter posted to Apple's "Hot News" weblog, announced that a software development kit (SDK) would be made available to third-party developers in February 2008.

The iPhone SDK was officially announced and released on March 6, 2008, at the Apple Town Hall facility.[243] It is a free download, with an Apple registration, that allows developers to develop native applications for the iPhone and iPod Touch, then test them in an "iPhone simulator". However, loading an application onto a real device is only possible after paying an Apple Developer Connection membership fee.

Developers are free to set any price for their applications to be distributed through the App Store, of which they will receive a 70% share.[244] Developers can also opt to release the application for free and will not pay any costs to release or distribute the application beyond the membership fee. The App Store was launched with the release of iOS 2.0, on July 11, 2008.[237] The update was free for iPhone users; owners of older iPod Touches were required to pay US$10 for it.

[245] Once a developer has submitted an application to the App Store, Apple holds firm control over its distribution. Apple can halt the distribution of applications it deems inappropriate, for example, I Am Rich, a US$1000 program that simply demonstrated the wealth of its user.[246] Apple has been criticized for banning third-party applications that enable a functionality that Apple does not want the iPhone to have: In 2008, Apple rejected Podcaster, which allowed iPhone users to download podcasts directly to the iPhone claiming it duplicated the functionality of iTunes.

[247] Apple has since released a software update that grants this capability.[222] NetShare, another rejected app, would have enabled users to tether their iPhone to a laptop or desktop, using its cellular network to load data for the computer.[248] Many carriers of the iPhone later globally allowed tethering before Apple officially supported it with the upgrade to the iOS 3.0, with AT&T Mobility being a relative latecomer in the United States.

[249] In most cases, the carrier charges extra for tethering an iPhone. Before the SDK was released, third parties were permitted to design "Web Apps" that would run through Safari.[250] Unsigned native applications are also available for "jailbroken" phones.[251] The ability to install native applications onto the iPhone outside of the App Store is not supported by Apple, the stated reason being that such native applications could be broken by any software update, but Apple has stated it will not design software updates specifically to break native applications other than those that perform SIM unlocking.

[252] As of October 2013, Apple has passed 60 billion app downloads.[253] As of September 2016, there have been over 140 billion app downloads from the App Store.[254] As of January 2017, the App Store has over 2.2 million apps for the iPhone.[255][256] Reception The original iPhone has been described as "revolutionary",[257] a "game-changer" for the mobile phone industry,[258][259][260][261] and has been credited with helping to make Apple one of the world's most valuable publicly traded companies by 2011.

[262] Newer iterations have also received praise, such as being called "the best phone".[263] The iPhone attracts users of all ages,[34] and besides consumer use, the iPhone has also been adopted for business purposes.[264] Accessibility features Starting with the iPhone 4S, Apple added an accessibility feature to optimize the function of the iPhone with hearing aids.[265] Apple released a program of Made for iPhone Hearing Aids.

[266] These hearing aids deliver a power-efficient, high-quality digital audio experience and allow the user to manage the hearing aid right from the iPhone. Made for iPhone hearing aids also feature Live Listen. With Live Listen the iPhone acts as a remote microphone that sends sound to a Made for iPhone hearing aid. Live Listen can help the user hear a conversation in a noisy room or hear someone speaking across the room.

[267] The Braille Displays for iOS program was announced by Apple coinciding with the release of the iPhone 3GS, iPad and iPod Touch (3rd Generation). This program added support for more than 50 Bluetooth wireless braille displays that work with iOS out of the box. The user only needs to pair the keyboard to the device to start using it to navigate the iOS device with VoiceOver without any additional software.

iOS supports braille tables for more than 25 languages.[268] IPhone lets the user know when an alert is sent to the it, in a variety of notice methods. It delivers both visual and vibrating alerts for incoming phone and FaceTime calls, new text messages, new and sent mail, and calendar events. You can set an LED light flash for incoming calls and alerts. Or have incoming calls display a photo of the caller.

Users can choose from different vibration patterns or even create their own.[269] The iPhone can enlarge text to make it more accessible for vision-impaired users,[270] and can accommodate hearing-impaired users with closed captioning and external TTY devices.[271] The iPhone 3GS also features white on black mode, VoiceOver (a screen reader), and zooming for impaired vision, and mono audio for limited hearing in one ear.

[272] Apple regularly publishes Voluntary Product Accessibility Templates which explicitly state compliance with the US regulation "Section 508".[273] With the release of iOS 9 for all iPhones, users have the ability to choose between two different screen view options. The user can choose to have a standard view or zoomed view. When the iPhone is placed in a standard view setting, the icons are normal size and the text remains the same.

With a zoomed view option, the icons on the screen and the text become slightly larger. This enables the user to have a more customized appearance and it can potentially help some users read the screen easier. AssistiveTouch helps to adapt the Multi-Touch screen of an iOS device to your unique physical needs. This can be of great assistance to those who have difficulty with some gestures, like pinch, one can make them accessible with just a tap of a finger.

The user can create their own gestures and customize the layout of the AssistiveTouch menu. If the user has trouble pressing the Home button, it can be set so that it can be activated with an onscreen tap. Gestures like rotate and shake are available even when if the iOS device is mounted on a wheelchair.[269] Guided Access helps people with autism or other attention and sensory challenges stay focused on the task (or app) at hand.

With Guided Access, a parent, teacher, or therapist can limit an iOS device to stay on one app by disabling the Home button, and limit the amount of time spent in an app. The user can even restrict access to the keyboard or touch input on certain areas of the screen. So wandering taps and gestures won't distract from learning.[269] Models See also: List of iOS devices § iPhone 18 different iPhone models have been produced.

The models in bold are the current flagship devices of the series: iPhone (2007–2008) iPhone 3G (2008–2010) iPhone 3GS (2009–2012) iPhone 4 (2010–2013) iPhone 4S (2011–2014) iPhone 5 (2012–2013) iPhone 5C (2013–2015) iPhone 5S (2013–2016) iPhone 6 (2014–2016) iPhone 6 Plus (2014–2016) iPhone 6S (2015–present) iPhone 6S Plus (2015–present) iPhone SE (2016–present) iPhone 7 (2016–present) iPhone 7 Plus (2016–present) iPhone 8 (2017–present) iPhone 8 Plus (2017–present) iPhone X (2017–present) Sources: Apple press release library[274] Intellectual property Apple has filed more than 200 patent applications related to the technology behind the iPhone.

[275][276] LG Electronics claimed the design of the iPhone was copied from the LG Prada. Woo-Young Kwak, head of LG Mobile Handset R&D Center, said at a press conference: "we consider that Apple copied Prada phone after the design was unveiled when it was presented in the iF Design Award and won the prize in September 2006."[277] On September 3, 1993, Infogear filed for the US trademark "I PHONE"[278] and on March 20, 1996, applied for the trademark "IPhone".

[279] "I Phone" was registered in March 1998,[278] and "IPhone" was registered in 1999.[279] Since then, the I PHONE mark had been abandoned.[278] Infogear trademarks cover "communications terminals comprising computer hardware and software providing integrated telephone, data communications and personal computer functions" (1993 filing),[278] and "computer hardware and software for providing integrated telephone communication with computerized global information networks" (1996 filing).

[280] Infogear released a telephone with an integrated web browser under the name iPhone in 1998.[281] In 2000, Infogear won an infringement claim against the owners of the iphones.com domain name.[282] In June 2000, Cisco Systems acquired Infogear, including the iPhone trademark.[283] On December 18, 2006, they released a range of re-branded Voice over IP (VoIP) sets under the name iPhone.[284] In October 2002, Apple applied for the "iPhone" trademark in the United Kingdom, Australia, Singapore, and the European Union.

A Canadian application followed in October 2004, and a New Zealand application in September 2006. As of October 2006, only the Singapore and Australian applications had been granted. In September 2006, a company called Ocean Telecom Services applied for an "iPhone" trademark in the United States, United Kingdom and Hong Kong, following a filing in Trinidad and Tobago.[285] As the Ocean Telecom trademark applications use exactly the same wording as the New Zealand application of Apple, it is assumed that Ocean Telecom is applying on behalf of Apple.

[286] The Canadian application was opposed in August 2005, by a Canadian company called Comwave who themselves applied for the trademark three months later. Comwave has been selling VoIP devices called iPhone since 2004.[283] Shortly after Steve Jobs' January 9, 2007 announcement that Apple would be selling a product called iPhone in June 2007, Cisco issued a statement that it had been negotiating trademark licensing with Apple and expected Apple to agree to the final documents that had been submitted the night before.

[287] On January 10, 2007, Cisco announced it had filed a lawsuit against Apple over the infringement of the trademark iPhone, seeking an injunction in federal court to prohibit Apple from using the name.[288] In February 2007, Cisco claimed that the trademark lawsuit was a "minor skirmish" that was not about money, but about interoperability.[289] On February 2, 2007, Apple and Cisco announced that they had agreed to temporarily suspend litigation while they held settlement talks,[290] and subsequently announced on February 20, 2007, that they had reached an agreement.

Both companies will be allowed to use the "iPhone" name[291] in exchange for "exploring interoperability" between their security, consumer, and business communications products.[292] The iPhone has also inspired several leading high-tech clones,[293] driving both the popularity of Apple and consumer willingness to upgrade iPhones quickly.[294] On October 22, 2009, Nokia filed a lawsuit against Apple for infringement of its GSM, UMTS and WLAN patents.

Nokia alleges that Apple has been violating ten Nokia patents since the iPhone initial release.[295] In December 2010, Reuters reported that some iPhone and iPad users were suing Apple Inc. because some applications were passing user information to third-party advertisers without permission. Some makers of the applications such as Textplus4, Paper Toss, The Weather Channel, Dictionary.com, Talking Tom Cat and Pumpkin Maker have also been named as co-defendants in the lawsuit.

[296] In August 2012, Apple won a smartphone patent lawsuit in the U.S. against Samsung, the world's largest maker of smartphones;[297] however, on December 6, 2016, SCOTUS reversed the decision that awarded nearly $400 million to Apple and returned the case to Federal Circuit court to define the appropriate legal standard to define "article of manufacture" because it is not the smartphone itself but could be just the case and screen to which the design patents relate.

[298] In March 2013, an Apple patent for a wraparound display was revealed.[299] Secret tracking Since April 20, 2011, a hidden unencrypted file on the iPhone and other iOS devices has been widely discussed in the media.[300][301] It was alleged that the file, labeled "consolidated.db", constantly stores the iPhone user's movement by approximating geographic locations calculated by triangulating nearby cell phone towers, a technology proven to be inaccurate at times.

[302] The file was released with the June 2010 update of Apple iOS4 and may contain almost a year's worth of data. Previous versions of iOS stored similar information in a file called "h-cells.plist".[303] F-Secure discovered that the data is transmitted to Apple twice a day and postulate that Apple is using the information to construct their global location database similar to the ones constructed by Google and Skyhook through wardriving.

[304] Nevertheless, unlike the Google "Latitude" application, which performs a similar task on Android phones, the file is not dependent upon signing a specific EULA or even the user's knowledge, but it is stated in the 15,200 word-long terms and conditions of the iPhone that "Apple and [their] partners and licensees may collect, use, and share precise location data, including the real-time geographic location of [the user's] Apple computer or device".

[305] The file is also automatically copied onto the user's computer once synchronized with the iPhone. An open source application named "iPhoneTracker", which turns the data stored in the file into a visual map, was made available to the public in April 2011.[306] While the file cannot be erased without jailbreaking the phone, it can be encrypted.[307] Apple gave an official response on their web site on April 27, 2011,[308] after questions were submitted by users, the Associated Press and others.

Apple clarified that the data is a small portion of their crowd-sourced location database cache of Wi-Fi hotspots and cell towers which is downloaded from Apple into the iPhone for making location services faster than with only GPS, therefore the data does not represent the locations of the iPhone. The volume of data retained was an error. Apple issued an update for iOS (version 4.3.3, or 4.2.8 for the CDMA iPhone 4) which reduced the size of the cache, stopped it being backed up to iTunes, and erased it entirely whenever location services were turned off.

[308] The upload to Apple can also be selectively disabled from "System services", "Cell Network Search." Regardless, in July 2014, a report on state-owned China Central Television labeled the iPhone a "national security concern."[309] A feature that can be found under "location services" in the settings of the iPhone has also been found to be secretly tracking the user's information. This feature is called "frequent locations" and it can either be kept on or turned off.

This feature is said to help the accuracy of the GPS and Apple Maps since it can log information about the locations the user has frequently visited. However, this feature also keeps track of the number of times that the user has been to that location, the dates, and the exact times. A lot of people have found this feature to be intrusive of their personal lives and have since then had an option to keep it on or shut it off.

[310] Encryption and intelligence agency access It was revealed as a part of the 2013 mass surveillance disclosures that the American and British intelligence agencies, the National Security Agency (NSA) and the Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) have access to the user data in iPhones, BlackBerrys, and Android phones, respectively. They can read almost all smartphone information, including SMS, location, emails, and notes.

[311] According to an article in The New York Times titled "Signaling Post-Snowden Era, New iPhone Locks Out N.S.A.", Apple has developed a new encryption method for iOS 8, described as "so deep that Apple could no longer comply with government warrants asking for customer information to be extracted from devices."[312] Throughout 2015, prosecutors in the United States argued for the U.S. government to be able to compel decryption of iPhone contents.

[313][314][315][316] After the 2015 San Bernardino attack, the FBI recovered an iPhone 5C that was issued to one of the shooters by his employer, and iCloud backups of that phone from a month and a half before the shooting. (The shooters had destroyed their personal phones.) The U.S. government attempted to use the arcane and outdated All Writs Act to obtain a court order ordering Apple to produce an IPSW file that would allow investigators to brute force the passcode of the iPhone, which would equate to modernized slavery.

[317][318][319]Tim Cook responded on the company's website, outlining a need for encryption, arguing that if they produce a backdoor for one device, it would inevitably be used to compromise the privacy of other iPhone users.[320] On February 19, Apple communicated to journalists that the password for the Apple ID for the iPhone had been changed within a day of the government obtaining it, preventing Apple from producing a workaround that would only target older devices.

[321]See FBI–Apple encryption dispute. As of April 2016, Apple's Privacy Policy addresses requests from government agencies for access to customers' data: "Apple has never worked with any government agency from any country to create a "backdoor" in any of our products or services. We have also never allowed any government access to our servers. And we never will."[322] In 2015 the Electronic Frontier Foundation awarded Apple five out of five stars "commend[ing] Apple for its strong stance regarding user rights, transparency, and privacy.

"[323] Restrictions See also: Hardware restrictions § Apple devices Apple tightly controls certain aspects of the iPhone. According to Jonathan Zittrain, the emergence of closed devices like the iPhone have made computing more proprietary than early versions of Microsoft Windows.[324] The hacker community has found many workarounds, most of which are disallowed by Apple and make it difficult or impossible to obtain warranty service.

[325] "Jailbreaking" allows users to install apps not available on the App Store or modify basic functionality. SIM unlocking allows the iPhone to be used on a different carrier's network.[326] However, in the United States, Apple cannot void an iPhone's warranty unless it can show that a problem or component failure is linked to the installation or placement of an after-market item such as unauthorized applications, because of the Federal Trade Commission's Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act of 1975.

[327] The iPhone also has an area and settings where users can set restrictions or parental controls[328] on apps that can be downloaded or used within the iPhone. The restrictions area requires a password.[329] Activation The iPhone normally prevents access to its media player and web features unless it has also been activated as a phone with an authorized carrier. On July 3, 2007, Jon Lech Johansen reported on his blog that he had successfully bypassed this requirement and unlocked the iPhone's other features with a combination of custom software and modification of the iTunes binary.

He published the software and offsets for others to use.[330] Unlike the first generation iPhone, the iPhone 3G must be activated in the store in most countries.[331] This makes the iPhone 3G more difficult, but not impossible, to hack. The need for in-store activation, as well as the huge number of first-generation iPhone and iPod Touch users upgrading to iPhone OS 2.0, caused a worldwide overload of Apple's servers on July 11, 2008, the day on which both the iPhone 3G and iPhone OS 2.

0 updates as well as MobileMe were released. After the update, devices were required to connect to Apple's servers to authenticate it, causing many devices to be temporarily unusable.[332] Users on the O2 network in the United Kingdom, however, can buy the phone online and activate it via iTunes as with the previous model.[333] Even where not required, vendors usually offer activation for the buyer's convenience.

In the US, Apple has begun to offer free shipping on both the iPhone 3G and the iPhone 3GS (when available), reversing the in-store activation requirement. Best Buy and Walmart will also sell the iPhone.[334] Unapproved third-party software and jailbreaking See also: iOS jailbreaking and iPhone Dev Team The iPhone's operating system is designed to only run software that has an Apple-approved cryptographic signature.

This restriction can be overcome by "jailbreaking" the phone,[335] which involves replacing the iPhone's firmware with a slightly modified version that does not enforce the signature check. Doing so may be a circumvention of Apple's technical protection measures.[336] Apple, in a statement to the United States Copyright Office in response to Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) lobbying for a DMCA exception for this kind of hacking, claimed that jailbreaking the iPhone would be copyright infringement due to the necessary modification of system software.

[337] However, in 2010, Jailbreaking was declared officially legal in the United States by the DMCA.[338] Jailbroken iPhones may be susceptible to computer viruses, but few such incidents have been reported.[339][340] iOS and Android 2.3.3 'Gingerbread' may be set up to dual boot on a jailbroken iPhone with the help of OpeniBoot or iDroid.[341][342] In 2007, 2010, and 2011, developers released a series of tools called JailbreakMe that used security vulnerabilities in Mobile Safari rendering to jailbreak the device (which allows users to install any compatible software on the device instead of only App Store apps).

[343][344][345] Each of these exploits were quickly fixed by iOS updates from Apple. Theoretically these flaws could have also been used for malicious purposes.[346] In July 2011, Apple released iOS 4.3.5 (4.2.10 for CDMA iPhone) to fix a security vulnerability with certificate validation.[347] Following the release of the iPhone 5S model, a group of German hackers called the Chaos Computer Club announced on September 21, 2013, that they had bypassed Apple's new Touch ID fingerprint sensor by using "easy everyday means.

" The group explained that the security system had been defeated by photographing a fingerprint from a glass surface and using that captured image as verification. The spokesman for the group stated: "We hope that this finally puts to rest the illusions people have about fingerprint biometrics. It is plain stupid to use something that you can't change and that you leave everywhere every day as a security token.

"[348][349] SIM unlocking United States iPhone 3G shown with the SIM tray partially ejected Most iPhones were and are still sold with a SIM lock, which restricts the use of the phone to one particular carrier, a common practice with subsidized GSM phones. Unlike most GSM phones however, the phone cannot be officially unlocked by entering a code. The locked/unlocked state is maintained on Apple's servers per IMEI and is set when the iPhone is activated.

[350] While the iPhone was initially sold in the US only on the AT&T network with a SIM lock in place, various hackers have found methods to "unlock" the phone from a specific network.[351] Although AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile and Verizon are the only authorized iPhone carriers in the United States, unlocked iPhones can be used with other carriers.[352] For example, an unlocked iPhone may be used on the T-Mobile network in the US but, while an unlocked iPhone is compatible with T-Mobile's voice network, it may not be able to make use of 3G functionality (i.

e. no mobile web or e-mail, etc.).[353] More than a quarter of the original first generation iPhones sold in the US were not registered with AT&T. Apple speculates that they were likely shipped overseas and unlocked, a lucrative market before the iPhone 3G's worldwide release.[33][354] On March 26, 2009, AT&T in the United States began selling the iPhone without a contract, though still SIM-locked to their network.

[355] The up-front purchase price of such iPhone units is often twice as expensive as those bundled with contracts.[356] Outside of the United States, policies differ, especially in US territories and insular areas like Guam; GTA Teleguam was the exclusive carrier for the iPhone since its introduction, as none of the four US carriers (AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, and Verizon) have a presence in the area.

[357] Since 2013, Docomo Pacific ended GTA's exclusivity starting with the iPhone 5.[358] Beginning April 8, 2012, AT&T began offering a factory SIM unlock option (which Apple calls a "whitelisting", allowing it to be used on any carrier the phone supports) for iPhone owners.[359] It has been reported that all of the Verizon 4G LTE phones come factory unlocked. After such discovery, Verizon announced that all of their 4G LTE phones, including iPhones, would remain unlocked.

This is due to the regulations that the FCC has placed on the 700 MHz C-Block spectrum, which is used by Verizon.[360] United Kingdom In the United Kingdom, O2, EE, 3, Vodafone, and Tesco Mobile sell the device under subsidised contracts, or for use on pay as you go. They are locked to the network initially, though they can usually be unlocked either after a certain period of contract length has passed, or for a small fee (with the exception of the 3 network, which will unlock the device at any time for no charge).

[361] However, all current versions of iPhone are available for purchase SIM-free from the Apple Store or Apple's Online Store, consequently, they are unlocked for use on any GSM network too.[362] Australia and other countries Four major carriers in Australia (Optus, Telstra, Virgin Mobile, and Vodafone)[363] offer legitimate unlocking, now at no cost for all iPhone devices, both current and prior models.

Internationally, policies vary, but many carriers sell the iPhone unlocked for full retail price.[169] Legal battles over brand name Mexico In 2003, four years before the iPhone was officially introduced, the trademark iFone was registered in Mexico by a communications systems and services company, iFone.[364] Apple tried to gain control over its brandname, but a Mexican court denied the request. The case began in 2009, when the Mexican firm sued Apple.

The Supreme court of Mexico upheld that iFone is the rightful owner and held that Apple iPhone is a trademark violation.[365] Brazil In Brazil, the brand IPHONE was registered in 2000 by the company then called Gradiente Eletrônica S.A., now IGB Eletrônica S.A. According to the filing, Gradiente foresaw the revolution in the convergence of voice and data over the Internet at the time.[366] In Brazil, the final battle over the brandname concluded in 2008.

On December 18, 2012, IGB launched its own line of Android smartphones under the tradename to which it has exclusive rights in the local market.[366] In February 2013, the Brazilian Patent and Trademark Office (known as "Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial") issued a ruling that Gradiente Eletrônica, not Apple, owned the "iPhone" mark in Brazil. The "iPhone" term was registered by Gradiente in 2000, 7 years before Apple's release of its first iPhone.

This decision came three months after Gradiente Eletrônica launched a lower-cost smartphone using the iPhone brand.[367] In June 2014, Apple won, for the second time, the right to use the brandname in Brazil. The court ruling determined that the Gradiente's registration does not own exclusive rights on the brand. Although Gradiente intended to appeal, with the decision Apple can use freely the brand without paying royalties to the Brazilian company.

[368] Philippines In the Philippines, Solid Group launched the MyPhone brand in 2007. Stylized as "my|phone", Solid Broadband filed a trademark application of that brand. Apple later filed a trademark case at the Intellectual Property Office of the Philippines (IPOPHL) against Solid Broadband's MyPhone for "confusingly similar" to the iPhone and that it may likely "deceive" or "cause confusion" among consumers.

Apple lost the trademark battle to Solid Group in a 2015 decision made by IPO director Nathaniel Arevalo, who also reportedly said that it was unlikely that consumers would be confused between the "iPhone" and the "MyPhone". "This is a case of a giant trying to claim more territory than what it is entitled to, to the great prejudice of a local 'Pinoy Phone' merchant who has managed to obtain a significant foothold in the mobile phone market through the marketing and sale of innovative products under a very distinctive trademark," Arevalo later added.

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"A Killer Product: Will closed devices like Apple's iPhone murder the Web?". Retrieved June 16, 2009. Through historical accident, we've ended up with a global network that pretty much allows anybody to communicate with anyone else at any time. Devices could be reprogrammed by them at any time, including code written by other people, so you don't have to be a nerd to get the benefits of reprogramming it.

[But] this is an historical accident. Now, I see a movement away from that framework—even though it doesn't feel like a movement away. [For example,] an iPhone can only be changed by Steve Jobs or soon, with the software development kit, by programmers that he personally approves that go through his iPhone apps store. Or whimsical applications that run on the Facebook platform or the new Google apps.

These are controllable by their vendors in ways that Bill Gates never dreamed of controlling Windows applications. [...] That's the ironic thing. Bill Gates is Mr. Proprietary. But for my purposes, even under the standard Windows operating system from 1990, 1991, you write the code, you can hand it to somebody else and they can run it. Bill Gates has nothing to say about it. So it's funny to think that by moving in Steve Jobs's direction it actually ends up far more proprietary.

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3.5 to fix certificate validation". Macworld. Retrieved January 19, 2017. ^ Musil, Steven (September 22, 2013). "Hackers claim to have defeated Apple's Touch ID print sensor". CNET. Retrieved March 23, 2017. ^ Frank (September 21, 2013). "Chaos Computer Club breaks Apple TouchID". Chaos Computer Club. Retrieved December 31, 2017. ^ "How to unlock your iPhone". Apple Inc. Retrieved November 10, 2016.

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"Apple is Fighting Back in Brazilian Courts to Get its iPhone Trademark". National Law Review. Retrieved November 6, 2013. ^ "Apple volta a vencer Gradiente em ação pela marca iPhone (English: Apple defeats Gradiente again in lawsuit for the iPhone brand)". Veja. Archived from the original on April 14, 2015. Retrieved August 27, 2015. ^ Beltran, Sam (June 3, 2015). "iPhone vs. MyPhone: Apple Loses in Trademark Case".

When In Manila. Retrieved June 4, 2015. ^ Gonzales, Yuji (June 2, 2015). "Apple Loses Trademark Case vs PH's MyPhone". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved June 4, 2015. External links Find more aboutiPhoneat Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Learning resources from Wikiversity iPhone – official site Technical specifications (all models) at Apple Inc.

Video of Jobs launching the iPhone at Macworld 2007 on YouTube Digging for rare earths: The mines where iPhones are born at CNET News, September 26, 2012 v t e iOS and iOS-based products History Outline Hardware Apple TV Apple Watch Series 2 Series 3 iPad 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Air Air 2 2017 iPad Mini 1st 2 3 4 iPad Pro 2 iPhone 1st 3G 3GS 4 4S 5 5C 5S 6 & 6 Plus 6S & 6S Plus SE 7 & 7 Plus 8 & 8 Plus X iPod Touch 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th Software AirDrop AirPlay AirPrint CarPlay Cocoa Touch Control Center Core Animation HomeKit iTunes iOS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 All Notification Center SDK Siri Spotlight SpringBoard VoiceOver WebKit Bundled apps Calendar Clock Contacts FaceTime Files Find My Friends Find My iPhone Health Home iBooks Mail Maps Messages Music News Notes Photo Booth Photos Reminders Safari TV Videos Wallet Weather Watch Discontinued Newsstand Apple apps AirPort Utility Clips iLife GarageBand iMovie iWork Keynote Numbers Pages Logic Remote Remote Discontinued Beats Music Cards iPhoto Nike + iPod Services Apple Pay App Store Game Center iBookstore iCloud iMessage iTunes Connect iTunes Store Multitasking Push Notifications TestFlight Discontinued iAd iTunes Radio MobileMe Other 300-page bill Apple mobile application processors FairPlay Free and open-source iOS applications Games History of iPhone iFund Jailbreaking Metal Swift WWDC v t e Apple hardware since 1998 Consumer desktop/all-in-ones eMac iMac G3 G4 G5 Intel-based Mac Mini Professional tower/desktop iMac Pro Mac Pro Power Macintosh G3 G4 G4 Cube G5 Xserve Consumer notebook iBook MacBook Retina MacBook Air Professional notebooks PowerBook G3 G4 MacBook Pro Consumer electronics Apple TV Apple Watch 1st 2nd 3rd Displays Thunderbolt Cinema Studio iPad 1st 2 3rd 4th 5th iPad Air 1st 2 iPad Mini 1st 2 3 4 iPad Pro 2 iPad accessories iPhone 1st 3G 3GS 4 4S 5 5C 5S 6 / 6 Plus 6S / 6S Plus SE 7 / 7 Plus 8 / 8 Plus X iPod Classic Photo Mini iPod+HP Shuffle Nano Touch Newton MessagePad eMate 300 Accessories AirPort Express Extreme Time Capsule iPod Click Wheel iPod Hi-Fi Nike+ iSight Keyboard Wireless Magic Trackpad Magic Magic 2 Mouse USB Pro Wireless Mighty Magic Magic 2 Pencil AirPods Remote Siri Remote SuperDrive USB Modem Xserve RAID AirPower Apple hardware before 1998 v t e Apple Inc.

History Outline Founders Steve Jobs Steve Wozniak Ronald Wayne Board of directors Current James A. Bell Tim Cook (CEO) Albert Gore Jr. Robert A. Iger Andrea Jung Arthur D. Levinson (Chairman) Ronald D. Sugar Susan L. Wagner Former Fred D. Anderson Gil Amelio Bill Campbell Mickey Drexler Larry Ellison Steve Jobs Delano Lewis Mike Markkula Arthur Rock Eric Schmidt John Sculley Edgar S.

Woolard Jr. Jerry York Executives Current Tim Cook (CEO) Jonathan Ive (CDO) Jeff Williams (COO) Luca Maestri (CFO) Katherine Adams (General Counsel) Angela Ahrendts Phil Schiller Eddy Cue Craig Federighi Dan Riccio Johny Srouji Lisa Jackson Former Steve Jobs Fred D. Anderson John Browett Tony Fadell Scott Forstall Nancy R. Heinen Ron Johnson Peter Oppenheimer Mark Papermaster Jon Rubinstein Bertrand Serlet Sina Tamaddon Avie Tevanian Gil Amelio Ellen Hancock David Nagel Guerrino De Luca Bruce Sewell Steve Wozniak Services Apple ID Apple Maps Apple Music Apple Pay Developer iAd TestFlight Game Center iCloud MobileMe iWork News Newsstand Stores Apple Store App Store iBookstore iTunes Store Mac App Store Support AppleCare Apple Specialist Certifications Genius Bar ProCare One to One Products Hardware Mac iMac iMac Pro MacBook family Mac Mini Mac Pro iPod Classic Nano Shuffle Touch iPhone iPad Mini Air Pro Accessories Apple TV Apple Watch Software Classic Mac OS macOS History Server Software iOS Version history tvOS watchOS Core Foundation Developer Tools Final Cut Pro Logic Pro QuickTime CarPlay Companies Subsidiaries Beats Electronics Beats Music Braeburn Capital FileMaker Inc.

Acquisitions Anobit AuthenTec Inc. Beats Electronics Beats Music Cue Emagic FingerWorks Intrinsity Lala NeXT Nothing Real Metaio P.A. Semi PrimeSense Shazam Siri Spotsetter Topsy Related Advertising 1984 Think different Get a Mac iPods Product Red Campus Park Design IDg Typography Book Didi Chuxing History Codenames Community Criticism Litigation FBI–Apple encryption dispute iOS app approvals Apple Music Festival Welcome to Macintosh (2008 documentary) Artistic depictions of Steve Jobs Original programs distributed by Apple Book  Category Portal Authority control LCCN: sh2007007371 GND: 7596595-1 BNF: cb156082549 (data) Retrieved from "https://en.

wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=IPhone&oldid=818668976"

See Also: 7 Inch Raspberry Pi Screen

The principal reason of contemporary computer system display savers is amusement and sometimes even, security. Nevertheless, they were initially created to avert phosphor burn-in on plasma laptop or computer monitors as well as CRT equipment. Screen savers served to circumvent these negative outcomes by mechanically altering the photographs if the laptop wasn't being used.



Allow me to convey to you of a brain improving strategy I'd stumbled upon following loading a really large quantity of photos into My Pictures file, which was quickly hooked, perhaps like your pc established up, to my monitor saver program. After sitting down and seeing it in the future, I mentioned how it spurred on my mind and elevated my spatial reasoning previous to creating periods. It really helped and that i was shocked.

iPhone Secrets and iPad Secrets and iPod Touch Secrets https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sUz8ngGbWuU [embedded content] [embedded content] [embedded content] The purpose of this webpage is to provide information (a majority are secret or are hard to find) on the iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch. It will mainly concentrate on the more feature rich iPhone, but sometimes information on the iPad and iPod Touch will be added if it is not too distracting.

If you think you know all there is to know about the iPhone, iPod Touch, or iPad, read the following and you might learn a thing or two that you didn't know before. It is updated as new information is uncovered in the public, so visit often if you wish to keep up to date on the latest secrets. Please link to this webpage rather than copy the contents. And do remember that the ads support this page so visit them if they interest you.

Note that this page is part of a collection of secrets to various hardware. Feel free to read other technology "SECRETS" by visiting the menu at the top of this page. [embedded content]First Apple Store in Hong Kong. The following chart describes the basic differences between various iPhone and iPod Touch model numbers. iPod Classic, iPod Mini, iPod Photo, iPod Video, iPod Shuffle, and iPod Nano are not included because they are not able to run the same software as iPhone and iPod touch (which have binary code compatibility.

) What this means is that compiled code can run on iPhone or iPod Touch unmodified (and on later device versions, as long as you are able to download and install them). Note that special applications that makes use of hardware on newer versions of the iPhone (like the digital compass capability of the iPhone 3GS) would not work on earlier models. For the iPad, iPad 3G refers to the iPad Wi-Fi + 3G model.

For quick identification purposes, the iPod Touch will have "1G", "2G", or "3G" to designate the iPod Touch generation (1G = first generation; 2G = second generation; etc). These quoted abbreviations have nothing to do with the 3G designation used to indicate cellular technology generation on the iPhone 3G. Applications on iPod Touch "1G", "2G", and "3G" are not able to use any cellphone hardware capabilities at all.

For the original iPhone, it will sometimes be identified as iPhone "2G" (since it uses GSM, a cellular 2G standard). In other words, quoted designations are not official product names from Apple (unlike non-quoted ones), but are used to identify your device. The iPad is like a big iPod Touch, but has some borrowed features from the iPhone (like the digital compass and cellular 3G capability.)Visually, all iPod Touch models have an aluminum back with a small plastic covering in the top left corner.

iPod Touch "1G" has squarish covering, while the iPod Touch "2G"/"3G" have an oval covering. Only the iPhone "2G" has an aluminum back (without the top left plastic covering). Both iPhone 3G and 3GS have plastic backs. The iPhone 4/4 (CDMA) have a aluminosilicate glass back. The main physical differences between the iPhone 4 and the iPhone 4 (CDMA) are the appearances of extra linear gaps located on the outer metal band in-between the two glass sheets.

The extra air gaps lessens the possibility for signal interference caused by your fingers by separating the different antennas from each other.The Model Number is located on the back of the device. The iPhone "2G" also includes the serial number and IMEI number on the back of the phone. Model Common Name Flash(GB) DRAM ARM CPU PowerVRGPU Resolution Wi-Fi802.11 Bluetooth Camera Cellular TypesSupported Max Cellular Speeds A-GPS Vibrate Compass 3-Axis Gyro Nike+ FirstRelease Download Upload A1213 iPod Touch "1G" 8,16,32 128MB 1176JZ(F)-S (412MHz) MBX Lite 480x320 b/g No No No No No No No No No No Sep, 2007 A1288 iPod Touch "2G" 8,16,32 128MB ARM11 (533MHz)+ ARM7 MBX Lite 480x320 b/g 2.

1 (A2DP) No No No No No No No No Yes Sep, 2008 A1318 iPod Touch "3G" 32,64 256MB Cortex-A8 (600MHz) SGX535 480x320 b/g 2.1 (A2DP) No No No No No No No No Yes Sep, 2009 A1367 iPod Touch "4G" 8,32,64 256MB Cortex-A8 (800MHz) SGX535 960x640 b/g/n 2.1 (A2DP) .69MPVGA No No No No No No Yes Yes Sep, 2010 A1421 iPod Touch "5G" 32,64 512MB Cortex-A9Dual Core SGX543MP2 1136x640 b/g/n 4.0 (A2DP) 5MP1.2MPLED Flash No No No No No No Yes Yes Nov, 2012 Model Common Name Flash(GB) DRAM ARM CPU PowerVRGPU Resolution Wi-Fi802.

11 Bluetooth Camera Cellular TypesSupported Max Cellular Speeds A-GPS Vibrate Compass 3-Axis Gyro Nike+ FirstRelease Download Upload A1203 iPhone "2G" 4,8,16 128MB 1176JZ(F)-S (412MHz) MBX Lite 480x320 b/g 2.0 (A2DP) 2MP GSM (GPRS/EDGE) 236.8kbps(EDGE) 177.6kbps(EDGE) No Yes No No No Jun, 2007 A1241 iPhone 3G 8,16 128MB 1176JZ(F)-S (412MHz) MBX Lite 480x320 b/g 2.0 (A2DP) 2MP GSM (GPRS/EDGE)UMTS (HSPA) 3.

6Mbps(HSDPA) 384kbps(UMTS) Yes Yes No No No Jul, 2008 A1303 iPhone 3GS 8,16,32 256MB Cortex-A8 (600MHz) SGX535 480x320 b/g 2.1 (A2DP) 3.15MP GSM (GPRS/EDGE)UMTS (HSPA) 7.2Mbps(HSDPA) 384kbps(UMTS) Yes Yes Yes No Yes Jun, 2009 A1332 iPhone 4 (GSM) 16,32 512MB Cortex-A8 (800MHz) SGX535 960x640 b/g/n 2.1 (A2DP) 5MPVGALED Flash GSM (GPRS/EDGE)UMTS (HSPA) 7.2Mbps(HSDPA) 2.9Mbps(HSUPA) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Jun, 2010 A1349 iPhone 4 (CDMA) 16,32 512MB Cortex-A8 (800MHz) SGX535 960x640 b/g/n 2.

1 (A2DP) 5MPVGALED Flash GSM (GPRS/EDGE)UMTS (HSPA) 14.4Mbps(HSDPA) 5.76Mbps(HSUPA) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Feb, 2011 cdmaOneCDMA2000 1xRTTCDMA2000 EV-DO 14.7Mbps(EV-DO B) 5.4Mbps(EV-DO B) A1387 iPhone 4S 16,32,64 512MB Cortex-A9 (800MHz)Dual Core SGX543MP2 960x640 b/g/n 4.0 (A2DP) 8MPVGALED Flash GSM (GPRS/EDGE)UMTS (HSPA) 14.4Mbps(HSDPA) 5.76Mbps(HSUPA) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Oct, 2011 cdmaOneCDMA2000 1xRTTCDMA2000 EV-DO 14.

7Mbps(EV-DO B) 5.4Mbps(EV-DO B) A1428 iPhone 5 16,32,64 1 GB Apple A6 (1.3GHz)Dual Core SGX543MP3 1136x640 b/g/n 4.0 (A2DP) 1.2MP8MP cdmaOneCDMA2000 1xRTTCDMA2000 EV-DOGSM (GPRS/EDGE)UMTS (HSPA)LTE 73Mbps(LTE) 5.76Mbps(HSUPA) Yes Yes Yes Yes No Oct, 2012 Model Common Name Flash(GB) DRAM ARM CPU PowerVRGPU Resolution Wi-Fi802.11 Bluetooth Camera Cellular TypesSupported Max Cellular Speeds A-GPS Vibrate Compass 3-Axis Gyro Nike+ FirstRelease Download Upload A1219 iPad (Wi-Fi) 16,32,64 256MB Cortex-A8 (1GHz) SGX535 1024x768 a/b/g/n 2.

1 (A2DP) No No No No No No Yes No No Apr, 2010 A1337 iPad (GSM) 16,32,64 256MB Cortex-A8 (1GHz) SGX535 1024x768 a/b/g/n 2.1 (A2DP) No GSM (GPRS/EDGE)UMTS (HSPA) 7.2Mbps(HSDPA) 384kbps(UMTS) Yes No Yes No No Apr, 2010 A1395 iPad 2 (Wi-Fi) 16,32,64 512MB Cortex-A9 (1GHz)Dual Core SGX543MP2 1024x768 a/b/g/n 2.1 (A2DP) VGA.92MP No No No No No Yes Yes No Mar, 2011 A1396 iPad 2 (GSM) 16,32,64 512MB Cortex-A9 (1GHz)Dual Core SGX543MP2 1024x768 a/b/g/n 2.

1 (A2DP) VGA.92MP GSM (GPRS/EDGE)UMTS (HSPA) 14.4Mbps(HSDPA) 5.76Mbps(HSUPA) Yes No Yes Yes No Mar, 2011 A1397 iPad 2 (CDMA) 16,32,64 512MB Cortex-A9 (1GHz)Dual Core SGX543MP2 1024x768 a/b/g/n 2.1 (A2DP) VGA.92MP cdmaOneCDMA2000 1xRTTCDMA2000 EV-DO 14.7Mbps(EV-DO B) 5.4Mbps(EV-DO B) Yes No Yes Yes No Mar, 2011 A1403 iPad 3 (CDMA) 16,32,64 1 GB Cortex-A9 (1GHz)Dual Core SGX543MP4 2048x1536 a/b/g/n 4.

0 (A2DP) VGA5MP cdmaOneCDMA2000 1xRTTCDMA2000 EV-DOGSM (GPRS/EDGE)UMTS (HSPA)LTE 73Mbps(LTE) 5.76Mbps(HSUPA) Yes No Yes Yes No Mar, 2012 A1416 iPad 3 (Wi-Fi) 16,32,64 1 GB Cortex-A9 (1GHz)Dual Core SGX543MP4 2048x1536 a/b/g/n 4.0 (A2DP) VGA5MP No No No No No Yes Yes No Mar, 2012 A1430 iPad 3 (GSM) 16,32,64 1 GB Cortex-A9 (1GHz)Dual Core SGX543MP4 2048x1536 a/b/g/n 4.0 (A2DP) VGA5MP GSM (GPRS/EDGE)UMTS (HSPA)LTE 73Mbps(LTE) 5.

76Mbps(HSUPA) Yes No Yes Yes No Mar, 2012 The Pink (A2DP) entry for iPhone "2G" and pink cellular entries for iPhone 4 (CDMA) means that it is not officially supported, but the hardware supports it natively. Usually you can unlock it via installing homebrew software or other software drivers.Note that certain iPhones sold in China have the Wi-Fi disabled (like some iPhone 3G/3GS), and another (iPhone 3GS in 8GB) comes with a labeling as WLAN instead of Wi-Fi, which indicates it supports the homegrown WAPI (WLAN Authentication and Privacy Infrastructure) standard that uses the SMS4 symmetric encryption algorithm on top of Wi-Fi.

These modifications were the result of meeting special regulations to comply with their local laws. Because these devices sometimes shares the same model numbers, they are put together in one chart below to denote their unique Wi-Fi characteristics. Model Common Name Flash(GB) DRAM ARM CPU PowerVRGPU Resolution Wi-Fi802.11 Bluetooth Camera Cellular TypesSupported Max Cellular Speeds A-GPS Vibrate Compass 3-Axis Gyro Nike+ FirstRelease Download Upload A1319 iPod Touch "2G" 8 128MB ARM11 (533MHz)+ ARM7 MBX Lite 480x320 b/g (?) 2.

1 (A2DP) No No No No No No No No Yes Aug, 2009 Model Common Name Flash(GB) DRAM ARM CPU PowerVRGPU Resolution Wi-Fi802.11 Bluetooth Camera Cellular TypesSupported Max Cellular Speeds A-GPS Vibrate Compass 3-Axis Gyro Nike+ FirstRelease Download Upload A1324 iPhone 3G 8,16 128MB 1176JZ(F)-S(412MHz) MBX Lite 480x320 No 2.0 (A2DP) 2MP GSM (GPRS/EDGE)UMTS (HSPA) 3.6Mbps(HSDPA) 384kbps(UMTS) Yes Yes No No No Oct, 2009 A1325 iPhone 3GS 16,32 256MB Cortex-A8 (600MHz) SGX535 480x320 No 2.

1 (A2DP) 3.15MP GSM (GPRS/EDGE)UMTS (HSPA) 7.2Mbps(HSDPA) 384kbps(UMTS) Yes Yes Yes No Yes Oct, 2009 A1303 iPhone 3GS 8 256MB Cortex-A8 (600MHz) SGX535 480x320 WAPI 2.1 (A2DP) 3.15MP GSM (GPRS/EDGE)UMTS (HSDPA) 7.2Mbps(HSDPA) 384kbps(UMTS) Yes Yes Yes No Yes Aug, 2010 [embedded content] Although the Model Number lets you know what type of device you have (iPhone, iPod Touch, or iPad), and the generation ("1G"/"2G"/"3G"/4, or "2G"/3G/3GS), they don't tell you much about the color and size of the flash memory.

The back of the iPhone and iPod Touch box contains a Part No. that provides these information. This Part No. can also be gotten by going into Settings->General->About on your device, and looking at the Model listing field. Note the special terminology of "Model" when placed in different contexts. When referencing the hardware, the term "Model" refers to the Model No. labelled on the back of the device.

When displayed by the running software, the term "Model" actually refers to the Part No. located on the box. In this article, the term "Model" always refers to the label on the back of the device, and it starts with an "A", followed by four digits. The Part No. is the same one from the box. Note that in different regions, differing suffix for the Part Number exist. This Part Number usually is divided into four sections.

The first section is a two character alphabet. The second section is a three digit number. The third section is the country code (one or two digits). The last section is "/A". An example Part Number is MC133ZP/A, which is an iPhone 3GS 32GB from Hong Kong. The "MC" is the first section. The "133" is the second section (three digits). The "ZP" is the third section (country code). The "/A" is the fourth section.

Part Number: (First Two Sections) The following is a table where you can match the prefix (first two sections) of your part number to get a general specification of your device. iPod Touch Part No. Model Common Name Flash Size Color (Back) Release Date Comments MA623 (PA623,PA624,PA839) A1213 iPod Touch "1G" 8GB Aluminum Sep 5, 2007 MA627 (PA627,PA628) A1213 iPod Touch "1G" 16GB Aluminum Sep 5, 2007 MB376 A1213 iPod Touch "1G" 32GB Aluminum Feb 5, 2008 MB525 A1288 iPod Touch "2G" 8GB Aluminum Sep 9, 2008 MB528 (PB528,PB529) A1288 iPod Touch "2G" 8GB Aluminum MC086 A1288 iPod Touch "2G" 8GB Aluminum Sep 9, 2009 Released with iPod Touch "3G" MB531 (PB531,PB532) A1288 iPod Touch "2G" 16GB Aluminum Sep 9, 2008 MB533 (PB533,PB534) A1288 iPod Touch "2G" 32GB Aluminum Sep 9, 2008 MC008 A1318 iPod Touch "3G" 32GB Aluminum Sep 9, 2009 MC011 A1318 iPod Touch "3G" 64GB Aluminum Sep 9, 2009 iPhone Part No.

Model Common Name Flash Size Color (Back) Release Date Comments MA501 A1203 iPhone "2G" 4GB Aluminum Jun 29, 2007 MA712 A1203 iPhone "2G" 8GB Aluminum Jun 29, 2007 MB384 A1203 iPhone "2G" 16GB Aluminum Feb 5, 2008 MB046 A1241 iPhone 3G 8GB Black Jun 11, 2008 MB489 A1241 iPhone 3G 8GB Black MB048 A1241 iPhone 3G 16GB Black Jun 11, 2008 MB496 A1241 iPhone 3G 16GB Black MB499 A1241 iPhone 3G 16GB White MB501 A1241 iPhone 3G 16GB White MB632 A1241 iPhone 3G 16GB White MC176 A1324 iPhone 3G 8GB Black China Model MB715 A1303 iPhone 3GS 16GB Black Jun 16, 2009 MB735 A1303 iPhone 3GS 16GB Black Jun 16, 2009 MB716 A1303 iPhone 3GS 16GB White Jun 16, 2009 MB736 A1303 iPhone 3GS 16GB White Jun 16, 2009 MB717 A1303 iPhone 3GS 32GB Black Jun 16, 2009 MB737 A1303 iPhone 3GS 32GB Black Jun 16, 2009 MC133 A1303 iPhone 3GS 32GB Black Jun 16, 2009 MB718 A1303 iPhone 3GS 32GB White Jun 16, 2009 MB738 A1303 iPhone 3GS 32GB White Jun 16, 2009 MC318 A1332 iPhone 4 16GB Black Jun, 2010 MC319 A1332 iPhone 4 32GB Black Jun, 2010 MC603 A1332 iPhone 4 16GB Black Jun, 2010 MC605 A1332 iPhone 4 32GB Black Jun, 2010 iPad Part No.

Model Common Name Flash Size Color (Back) Release Date Comments MB292 A1219 iPad Wi-Fi 16GB White Apr, 2010 MB293 A1219 iPad Wi-Fi 32GB White Apr, 2010 MB294 A1219 iPad Wi-Fi 64GB White Apr, 2010 MC349 A1337 iPad 3G 16GB White Apr, 2010 MC496 A1337 iPad 3G 32GB White Apr, 2010 MC497 A1337 iPad 3G 64GB White Apr, 2010 Part Number: (Third Section) The third section of the Part Number contains information on which country or region the device was released to.

If it is an iPhone, you can also deduce what cell carriers it supports. The following is a list of country codes (third section) from the Part Number and the country and carriers that pertain to it for the iPhone. Country Code Country Carrier(s) Comments AB Egypt Mobinil Vodafone AB United Arab Emirates Etisalat DU Unlocked AB Jordan AB Saudi Arabia Unlocked B Ireland B U.K. C Canada Bell Fido Rogers Telus Virgin Mobile CH China CZ Czech Republic O2 T-Mobile Vodafone DN Austria DN Germany DN Netherlands E Mexico EE Estonia FB Luxembourg LUXGSM Tango FD Austria FD Liechtenstein Orange Swisscom FD Switzerland Orange Swisscom GR Greece HN India Airtel Vodafone J Japan KN Norway KS Finland KS Sweden LA Colombia Comcel Movistar LA Ecuador Porta Movistar LA El Salvador Claro Movistar LA Guatamela Claro Movistar LA Honduras LA Peru Claro TM SAC LE Argentina Claro Movistar Personal LL United States LZ Chile Entel PCS TMC LZ Paraguay LZ Uruguay CTI Movil Movistar MG Hungary NF Belgium Unlocked NF Luxembourg Vox Mobile NF France PL Poland Orange Era PO Portugal Optimus Vodafone PP Philippines RO Romania RS Russia Beeline MegaFon MTS SL Slovakia Orange T-Mobile SO South Africa T Italy 3 TIM Vodafone Unlocked TA Taiwan Chunghwa Telecom TU Turkey TurkCell Vodafone X Australia 3 Optus Telstra Vodafone X New Zealand Y Spain ZA Singapore M1 SingTel StarHub Unlocked ZP Hong Kong 3 SmarTone-Vodafone Unlocked ZP Macao Using the above chart, the following sample of Part Numbers of actual iOS devices is easily deduced.

Apple Model No. Common Name Prefix Part Number Europe (ZK) United States (LL) UK (O) Canada (C) China (CH) A1213 iPod Touch "1G" M?627 MA627ZK/A MA627LL/A MA627ZO/A MA627C/A A1288 iPod Touch "2G" M?528 MB528LL/A A1324 iPhone 3G M?176 MC176CH/A A1219 iPad Wi-Fi M?292 MB292LL/A A1337 iPad 3G M?497 MC497LL/A The country code on iOS devices is not easy to categorize, and seems to be in constant flux.

For example, here is a sample of the country code from early iPod Touch Part Numbers. ZO: U.K. ZD: Belgium/Germany ZG: Denmark Part Number: (Fourth Section) This last section contains the "/A" appended to the end of the Part Number. This is currently a mystery. Internally, Apple (vendor ID 1452, hex 0x05ac), refers to its products by special product codes and productID. For example, here are some internal IDs.

Most of these things are seen in firmware update files. To protect against leaks to the media new products (like the iPad and AppleTV) was originally called iProd internally (most likely a shortened version of the generic term iProduct) before the official name was used. hw.model comes from a sysctl -a command. iPhone iPhone1,1 (product ID 4752, hex 0x1290, hw.model M68AP): iPhone "2G" iPhone1,2 (product ID 4754, hex 0x1292, hw.

model N82AP): iPhone 3G iPhone2,1 (product ID 4756, hex 0x1294, hw.model N88AP): iPhone 3GS iPhone3,1 (product ID 4759, hex 0x1297, hw.model N90AP): iPhone 4 iPhone3,2 (product ID 4763, hex 0x129B): iPhone 4 (CDMA) Prototype iPhone3,3 (product ID 4764, hex 0x129C, hw.model N92AP): iPhone 4 (CDMA) iPod Touch iPod1,1 (product ID 4753, hex 0x1291, hw.model N45AP): iPod Touch "1G" iPod2,1 (product ID 4755, hex 0x1293, hw.

model N72AP): iPod Touch "2G" iPod2,2 (product ID 4758, hex 0x1296): iPod Touch "3G" Prototype iPod3,1 (product ID 4761, hex 0x1299, hw.model N18AP): iPod Touch "3G" iPod4,1 (product ID 4766, hex 0x129e, hw.model N81AP): iPod Touch "4G" iPad iProd0,1 (product ID 4757, hex 0x1295): iPad prototype iPad1,1 (product ID 4762, hex 0x129a, hw.model ?): iPad WiFi only iPad1,1 (product ID ?, hex ?, hw.model K48AP): iPad 3G+WiFi iPad2,1 (product ID ?, hex ?, hw.

model K93AP): iPad 2 WiFi iPad2,2 (product ID ?, hex ?, hw.model K94AP): iPad 2 Wi-Fi + 3G (GSM) iPad2,3 (product ID ?, hex ?, hw.model K95AP): iPad 2 Wi-Fi + 3G (CDMA) iPad3,1 (iPad 3 Wi-Fi) iPad3,2 (iPad 3 GSM) iPad3,3 (iPad 3 CDMA) AppleTV iProd2,1 (product ID 2054, hex 0x806): AppleTV 2 Prototype AppleTV2,1 (product ID 4765, hex 0x129d, hw.model K66AP): AppleTV 2 Other Apple Model numbers If you are interested in what the other model numbers are (between A1200 and A1368), the following is a list.

Apple releases devices with incremental model numbers. They do not seem to follow any pattern other than the numbers being incremental. A1200: iMacA1202: iMac 12V 1.8A AC AdapterA1203: iPhone "2G"A1204: iPod Shuffle "2G"A1205: iPod USB Charger AdapterA1207: iMac Core2Duo 2.16GHzA1208: iMacA1211: MacBook Pro 15" 1.16GHz CoreDuoA1212: MacBook Pro 17" 2.33GHzA1213: iPod Touch "1G"A1218: AppleTV "1G"A1219: iPad Wi-FiA1221: iPhone Bluetooth headsetA1222: MagSafe 85W Power Adapter for MacBook ProA1224: 20" iMac EducationA1225: iMac 24"A1226: MacBook Pro 15.

4"A1229: MacBook Pro 17"A1232: USB Adapter 5V Cable (iPhone iPod)A1233: Xserve RAID Card Rechargeable BatteryA1234: Dual Dock ChargerA1236: iPod Nano "3G"A1237: MacBook Air 1.8GHzA1238: iPod Classic "6G"A1241: iPhone 3GA1242: USB 2.0 KeyboardA1243: Ultra Thin Wired KeyboardA1244: MagSafe AC Adapter For MacBook Air 45WA1245: MacBook Air 37WH Replacement BatteryA1254: Time Capsule 500GBA1255: Wireless (Bluetooth) KeyboardA1256: iPhone Universal Dock with RemoteA1258: iPod AV+USB Cable A1259: iPhone TV AV+USB CableA1260: MacBook Pro 15" Core2Duo 2.

5GHzA1261: MacBook Pro 17" Core2Duo 2.5GHzA1264: AirPort Express Base StationA1265: USB Power Adapter (iPhone iPod)A1267: 24" LED Cinema DisplayA1270: MacBook Air SuperdriveA1271: iPod Shuffle "3G"A1277: USB Ethernet AdapterA1278: 13" MacBook ProA1279: XserveA1280: MacBook 13"A1281: MacBook Pro 15"A1283: Mac MiniA1285: iPod Nano "4G"A1286: 15" Macbook ProA1288: iPod Touch "2G"A1289: Mac ProA1290: MagSafe 85W Power AdapterA1294: Apple RemoteA1296: Magic MouseA1297: 17" Macbook ProA1301: Airport Extreme 802.

11n Dual BandA1302: Time Capsule 1TBA1303: iPhone 3GSA1304: 13" MacBook AirA1305: Mini DisplayPort to DVI AdapterA1306: Mini DisplayPort to Dual-Link DVI AdapterA1307: Mini DisplayPort to VGA AdapterA1309: Apple MacBook Pro 17" Laptop BatteryA1310: nVidia GeForce GT 120 512MB (Mac Pro graphics card)A1311: 21.5" iMacA1312: 27" iMac (QuadCore)A1314: Wireless Keyboard A1315: iPad batteryA1316: 27" LED Cinema DisplayA1318: iPod Touch "3G"A1319: iPod Touch "2G" (China Model)A1320: iPod Nano "5G"A1321: MacBook Pro BatteryA1322: MacBook Pro BatteryA1324: iPhone 3G (China model)A1325: iPhone 3GS (China model)A1330: MagSafe MacBook AC Charger AdapterA1331: 60Whr MacBook Pro Laptop BatteryA1332: iPhone 4A1337: iPad Wi-Fi + 3GA1339: Magic TrackpadA1342: MacBook 13" whiteA1343: MagSafe Power AdapterA1347: Mac mini (2010)A1349: iPhone 4 (CDMA)A1352: iPad DockA1354: AirPort Extreme Base StationA1355: Time CapsuleA1357: 10W iPad Power Adapter USBA1358: iPad Camera Connection Kit (Camera Connector)A1359: iPad Keyboard DockA1360: Battery ChargerA1362: iPad Camera Connection Kit (SD Card Reader)A1366: iPod Nano "6G"A1367: iPod Touch "4G"A1368: iPad Dock Connector to VGA AdapterA1376: iPad 2 BatteryA1388: 30-pin dock to HDMI adapterA1395: iPad 2 WiFiA1396: iPad 2 3G (GSM)A1397: iPad 2 3G (CDMA) All iOS devices have a 11 character serial number that provides more information about the device.

The 11 characters represent 6 different groups of information for your iOS device. The following is a breakdown of what each character in the serial number indicate. 11 Character Serial Number Factory and Machine ID Year Production Week Unique Identifier Color Size 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 The following are the possible permutations for each of the above group of characters for the iPhone 4. Characters Group Identifier Value Description Factory and Machine ID(2 Characters) 79 7R 7S 7T 7U 7V 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 Year(1 Digit) 0 2010 1 2011 Production Week(2 Digits) 01-52 Week of Manufacture (52 max weeks in a year) Unique Identifier(3 Characters) XXX Unique Identifier limits each Factory and Machine ID to 46,656 units a week.

Color(2 Characters) A4 Black Size(1 Character) S 16GB T 32GB Not all iPhone 4 with the same model number are the same. Problems in earlier batches include yellowish tint LCD screen (probably related to undried glue), defective proximity sensor, low signal strength because of hand interference with external antenna, and discoloration in the center of camera pictures. The first iPhone 4 released to the public was week 21 in year 2010.

In particular, some specific Production Week of many Factory and Machine ID have specific problems. Also, Factory/Machine ID that starts with 7 are actually made by Apple's factory lines, while those starting with 8 are made in China. Some models have 5K for the Factory and Machine ID, which indicates a refurbished unit. For iPhone 4, those made available after September 30, 2010 have most of the problem fixed.

Note that because each Factory and Machine ID can be allocated a maximum of 46,656 unique ID per week, you can derive that working non-stop 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, the maximum number of iPhone 4 that can be produced is around four iPhone 4 every minute at each Factory and Machine ID location. Special iPhone Models Many prototype iPhone models exist before they are released to the public. These iPhones incorporate next-generation technology to see if they are viable, and they give software creators something to program on to meet the public release date.

They are mostly manufactured in China, and lost or leaked iPhone prototype models will sometimes make the news. Here is an example of the iPhone 4 prototype information on the backside of the phone:The Flash Size: XXGBThe Model No.: XXXXXThe FCC ID: BCGAXXXXXThe IC ID: 579C-AXXXXXSome prototype models will have the number of internal flash memory printed in the back (for example another prototype of the iPhone 4 had 16GB imprinted, but the rest of the information similar to above).

Prototypes usually have internal names printed on the components inside. For example N90 PR2 would indicate iPhone 4 Prototype 2.Normally, new iPads are released on April of every year, new iPhones are released on June or July of every year, and new iPod Touch are released on September of every year. Early iPhone Models Before the consumer iPhone was released, earlier models existed. These models were made for developers and also to test if the system was viable.

Future iPhone Models Every once and a while, new iPhone models are released by Apple. If you wish to know ahead of time what the new models are, you can visit:https://fjallfoss.fcc.gov/oetcf/eas/reports/GenericSearch.cfmEnter for Grantee Code: BCGEnter for Product Code: ANote that the internal vendor ID of Apple is 1452 (hex: 0x05ac). You can see this in all the firmware updates. Frequency response: 20Hz to 20,000HzAudio formats supported: AAC, Protected AAC, MP3, MP3 VBR, Audible (formats 2, 3, and 4), Apple Lossless, AIFF, and WAVFor audio codec, the iPhone 3G incorporates the Wolfson WM6180C chipset.

The following summarizes the different audio related features on all the devices: Device Model Built-inSpeakers Built-inMicrophone HeadphoneMicrophoneSupport(wired headset) Built-inVolume ControlButtons HeadphoneVolume ControlSupport(wired headset) VibrationSupport iPod Touch "1G" 1 Piezoelectric No No No No No iPod Touch "2G" 1 Speaker No Yes Yes Yes No iPod Touch "3G" 1 Speaker No Yes Yes Yes No iPod Touch "4G" 1 Speaker 1 Yes Yes Yes No iPhone "2G" 1 Speaker 1 Yes Yes No Yes iPhone 3G 1 Speaker 1 Yes Yes No Yes iPhone 3GS 1 Speaker 1 Yes Yes Yes Yes iPhone 4 1 Speaker 2 Yes Yes Yes Yes iPhone 4S 1 Speaker 2 Yes Yes Yes Yes iPhone 5 1 Speaker 2 Yes Yes Yes Yes iPad 2 Stereo Speakers (Mono Spacing) 1 Yes Yes Yes No iPad 2 2 Stereo Speakers (Mono Spacing) 1 Yes Yes Yes No iPad 3 2 Stereo Speakers (Mono Spacing) 1 Yes Yes Yes No iPad 4 2 Stereo Speakers (Mono Spacing) 1 Yes Yes Yes No iPad Mini 2 Stereo Speakers 1 Yes Yes Yes No Speakers Every iPhone, iPod Touch, and iPad contains an internal speaker for you to listen to sound without using headphones.

There are only two exceptions. One exception is the iPod Touch "1G", which contains a piezo transducer (piezoelectric speaker) that is more suitable for simple beeps and buzzes, and is not considered a regular speaker. The second exception is that the iPads have two speakers, but they are spaced too close to each other, making it mono in effect (a big design flaw for such a big device). The iPad Mini finally fixed this design flaw by separating out the speakers to get stereo effect.

The early iPod Touch models ("1G"/"2G"/"3G") only uses the Dock Connector opening for the sound to get out of the device, while the iPod Touch "4G" finally has an additional dedicated speaker hole (like the iPhones). Microphone The iPod Touch "1G" was released with no support for a microphone, neither internally nor via the headphones jack. The iPod Touch "2G" and later models added support for a microphone via the headphones jack.

The iPod Touch "4G" finally gets an internal mic on the back (all previous iPod Touch devices do not have an internal microphone), with the option of using the headphone jack for mic as well. The iPhone line all have an internal mic, with the iPhone 4 including an extra noise-cancellation mic near the top. The iPads contain an internal mic as well. Volume Control Buttons The iPod Touch "1G" is missing external volume control buttons (on the device) for audio.

The rest of the devices all have external volume control buttons (on the device). This includes iPod Touch "2G" and later, and all iPhone and iPad models. Note that volume control buttons stated here does not pertain to those located on a headset (wired, or bluetooth), nor the hidden software depicted iPod/music player volume control slider two swipes to the left of the switcher panel (double-clicking home button).

The physical Volume Control Buttons actually controls five types of volumes depending on what is currently running on the LCD screen. Two types are connected, so changing one will affect the other, and vice versa (application and ipod/music player). Therefore, four different volume control settings can be controlled (and remembered) independently of each other using the physical buttons. Unfortunately, the volume icon only lets you know if you are changing the ringer volume setting ("ringer" label is shown above the icon when changing phone ringing loudness), and no label is shown when changing the other volume settings.

Application: Click volume buttons while any games or apps are running on the screen (also changes iPod/music player volume). iPod/music player: Click volume buttons while iPod/music player is currently playing (also changes application volume). Phone (Ringer): Click volume buttons while in phone app but not in conversation, or in springboard with no music playing (ringer will be shown above volume icon).

Phone (In Conversation): Click volume buttons while actually in conversation and loud speaker option is NOT pressed. Phone (Loud Speaker on): Click volume buttons while actually in conversation and loud speaker option is pressed. Headphones Jack In addition to the regular internal speakers, microphone, and volume control buttons built-in, there is also a headphones jack that allows you to plug in a wired headset to your device so that these audio hardware parts are closer to your ears, mouth and hands.

A major difference between the iPhone and iPod Touch is the location of the headphones jack. All iPhones have the headphones jack on the top, while iPod Touch headphones jack is located on the bottom of the device. The iPad also has it on the top. For the iPod Touch "1G"/"2G"/"3G", the headphones jack was soldered onto the motherboard, which is unfortunate because the headphones jack is usually the first thing to break because of constant physical wear.

The iPod Touch "4G" uses a Foxconn headphones jack that is not soldered onto the motherboard.Apple sells many different wired headsets. Each wired headset contains two ear speakers and a remote located on the wire that contains a microphone, a music control button, and two volume control buttons (missing on some headsets). Note that the iPhone came with a free wired headset, and the earlier iPhone "2G"/3G headsets does not have volume control buttons.

The Apple Online Store sells a generic "iPhone Stereo Headset" that is compatible with all iPhones that is missing these volume control buttons on the wired remote. Here is a listing the the wired headsets sold by Apple: Apple Earphones with Remote and Mic Apple In-Ear Headphones with Remote and Mic iPhone Stereo Headset Came with iPhone "2G"/3G (but compatible with all iPhone models) This headset is missing volume control buttons Headset Speakers When using the regular internal speakers, you only get mono sound.

When you plug in a headset, you have ability to play back stereo sound. This is why some games suggest that you plug in a headset, for better 3D aural emersion. Headset Microphone All iOS devices have support for headset microphone except the iPod Touch "1G". Keep this in mind, because you are unable to record audio, use voip, or have any type of audio input (not even bluetooth headset mic because the iPod Touch "1G" doesn't even support bluetooth).

The microphone is a small hole located on the wired remote. Headset Music Control On the Apple wired headsets, the center button on the wired remote also serves as an audio playback controller depending on how you press it: Headset Volume Control On the Apple wired headsets, the + and - buttons on the wired remote increases and decreases the volume respectively. Note that the iPod Touch "1G" and iPhone "2G"/3G does not support the wired remote volume control buttons, and is a hardware limitation (so these button signals are ignored).

iPod Touch "2G" and later models do support controlling the volume with the wired headset. For the iPhone devices, only iPhone 3GS and later models support controlling the volume with the wired headset. iPad also does supports wired headset volume control. It is because the iPhone "2G"/3G does not support wired volume control buttons from the headphone jack, that Apple sells a generic "iPhone Stereo Headset" with no volume control buttons in the wired remote.

This would make it compatible with all models of iPhone, but is considered less featured replacement for later iPhone models. Vibration Because the iPhone devices can sometimes ring when people are calling, there is a vibrate mode for certain situations where being quiet is important. There is a vibrate on/off switch for this purpose on all the iPhones. When switched to vibrate mode, the iPhone vibrates instead of rings.

Note that this vibrate switch does not affect applications running and using the internal speakers, only for the cellphone ringing triggered from the baseband software. The iPod Touch and iPad do not have this vibration ability as they were not made especially for taking cellphone calls. Unfortunately, the vibration feature is quite useful for games, and the iPod Touch and iPad are left out. If you are interested in games, it is more worthwhile to get the iPhone.

All the early iPhones use rotation motors with the rotated part heavy on side and light on the other, thus when spin created a vibration. Starting with the CDMA iPhone 4 (not regular iPhone 4), a linear vibrator was used, but provides a softer vibration. The iPhone video can be output to the default device display screen, out the bottom dock port, or through the internet on Wi-Fi (FaceTime only on iPhone 4).

Video can be input via the internet (Wi-Fi) or the built-in camera(s). It is unknown whether it is possible to provide video input via the 30-pin dock connector on the bottom of the device for playback on the default screen, or to pass it along to other FaceTime users via Wi-Fi. If yes, it allows the older iPhone, iPod Touch, and iPad owners to purchase accessories to enable a front-facing camera for using the Wi-Fi based FaceTime.

Cameras There is a camera on the back side of all iPhone models and the iPod Touch "4G" (iPod Touch "3G" or lower, and iPad do not have cameras). This built-in camera on the iPhone devices provide not only video recording, but picture taking as well. Still pictures (photo mode) utilize the full resolution of the camera, while video recording mode uses a lower resolution. The following is a breakdown of the max camera resolutions in either mode.

Note that the iPod Touch "4G" and iPhone 4 have an extra lower-resolution front-facing camera especially built for FaceTime. The iPod Touch "4G" video camera resolution is native resolution (the final output is stretched to fit 1280x720). iOS Device Built-inCamera Max Camera Resolution Comments Photo Mode Video Mode (recording) iPhone "2G" 2.0 MegaPixel 1600x1200 640x480 iPhone 3G 2.0 MegaPixel 1600x1200 640x480 iPhone 3GS 3.

2 MegaPixel 2048x1536 640x480 iPhone 4 5.0 MegaPixel 2592x1936 1280x720 Back-Facing VGA 640x480 640x480 Front-Facing iPhone 4 (CDMA) 5.0 MegaPixel 2592x1936 1280x720 Back-Facing VGA 640x480 640x480 Front-Facing iPod Touch "4G" .69 MegaPixel 960x720 960x720 Back-Facing VGA 640x480 640x480 Front-Facing [embedded content]Note the under certain conditions, your pictures will appear to have a greenish or bluish circle in the middle of your pictures.

This appears more prominently when you are taking pictures of a white surface under fluorescent lighting. These types of lighting are mostly those long tube types with gas that light up inside, or the tubes are twisted in a circle like in CFL (Compact Fluorescent Light) bulbs. Under low light, you may also get a reddish circle in the middle of your pictures. These problems are less prominent when you take pictures in broad daylight.

Apple provides video recording only on the iPhone 3GS and iPhone 4 and uses variable bit-rates depending on which video and audio codec is used. Note that the iPhone 3G is able to record video using homebrew software.The following is a chart summarizing the stock iPhone 3GS video recording capabilities. Format Video Features Audio Features Containers H.264 640x480, 1.5Mbps, 30 frames/sec H.264 Baseline Profile (with AAC-LC audio) 160Kbps, 48kHz, stereo .

m4v, .mp4, .mov H.264 640x480, 2.5Mbps, 30 frames/sec H.264 Baseline Profile (up to Level 3.0 with AAC-LC audio) 160Kbps, 48kHz, stereo .m4v, .mp4, .mov MPEG-4 640x480, 2.5Mbps, 30 frames/sec H.264 Simple Profile (with AAC-LC audio) 160Kbps, 48kHz, stereo .m4v, .mp4, .mov The following is a chart summarizing the stock iPhone 4 and iPod Touch "4G" video recording capabilities. Format Video Features Audio Features Containers H.

264 720p, 30 frames/sec H.264 Main Profile (with 3.1 AAC-LC audio) 160Kbps, 48kHz, stereo .m4v, .mp4, .mov Motion JPEG (M-JPEG) 1280x720, 35Mbps, 30 frames/sec PCM (ulaw audio), stereo .avi MPEG-4 640x480, 2.5Mbps, 30 frames/sec Simple Profile (with AAC-LC audio) 160Kbps, 48kHz, stereo .m4v, .mp4, .mov LED Flash Only the iPhone 4 models (regular and CDMA) has a LED flash located on the back of the device.

It is used to illuminate dark areas before the picture is taken. With the exception of the iPads (9.7"), the iPod Touch and iPhones have a 3.5" display. This is a major disappointment because with such a small screen, it hampers the usability of many applications (like games). After putting both your thumbs on the touch screen to control movement, you are already covering up at least 25% of the screen real estate.

Combine this with the fact that Apple forces you to use the touchscreen (lack of Bluetooth HID profiles for mouse and joystick), this problem is not going away if you enjoy high definition graphics. The NDS solves this problem by having a separate screen at the top. The Sony PSP doesn't have this problem by having a big 4.3" screen, and having the controls separate (on the left and right side) from the screen.

The screen of the iPhone is composed of various components fused or glued together, and is very difficult to take apart. For the original iPhone "2G", the three parts fused together are the glass, digitizer, and LCD screen. In the iPhone 3G, the LCD screen is not fused, and can be separated easily. The iPod Touch "1G"/"2G"/"3G" have separate front glass and LCD panel that are not fused. The iPhone 4 and iPod Touch "4G" have both the front glass and the LCD panel fused together.

The front and back of the iPhone 4 glass is made of aluminosilicate (most likely Corning Gorilla Glass). The iPhone 3GS/4/4(CDMA) and iPad (all) have an "oleophobic" (oil repellent) coating on the glass. The iPad 2 screen most likely uses Asahi Dragontrail instead of Gorilla Glass, and it is 27% thinner than the screen in the original iPad. Although the screen is scratch-resistant, it is not scratch-proof.

Most people purchase bumpers or protective layers to protect their iOS device. Many accessories makers sell simple invisible stickers, as the image link to the left provides. All the screens can accept capacitive touch input. Note that this is different from regular resistive touch that sense pressure. Capacitive touch detects electricity generated from your fingers. Note that the hardware can only detect a maximum of 5 touches at the same time.

The iPad can support 11 touches at the same time.The capacitive touch screen controller on the iPad/iPad 2 is the Broadcom BCM5974. Display Resolution The device screen display has considerably less resolution than what the built-in back-side camera provides for taking pictures. iPod Touch ("3G" and earlier) and iPhone (3GS and earlier) have 480x320 pixels on a 3.5" TN (Twisted Nematic) TFT (Thin Film Transistor) LCD (Liquid Crystal Display).

163ppi (pixels per inch).This is one of the weaknesses of these initial devices, having such low resolution when a lot of manufacturers are aiming for 1920x1080p. But in comparison with the aging PSP, it actually has 48 extra horizontal lines (PSP has a 480x272 LCD display).The iPhone 3GS and earlier uses TN TFT, while the iPhone 4 (and later models), use IPS (In-Plane Switching) TFT LCD with LED-backlit display.

The iPhone 4 has improved the display to 326 pixels per inch (Apple's term for over 264ppi is "Retina display"), while keeping within the same 3.5" display size.All the iPads use IPS, and has the lowest pixel per inch at 132ppi using a bigger 9.7" screen. Starting with the iPad 3, Retina support (264ppi) is supported. Note that the only reason the iPad Mini is at that size of 7.9" is because it uses the same pixels per inch (ppi) as the early iPhone (163ppi).

This allows easy switch to the same Retina density at 326ppi used in iPhone 4 and later models.The iPod Touch 4 and earlier uses TN TFT, while the iPod Touch 5 (and later models) use IPS. Beginning with the iPod Touch 4, retina displays (326ppi) are used.All the devices can output to an external display, at SDTV resolutions of 480p (NTSC) or 576p (PAL) using component or composite cables (via the Dock Connector).

The iPad, iPod Touch 4, and iPhone 4 can also output to an external display (VGA) at XGA resolution (1024x768) and 1280x720p (final outputted content may be altered and not actually native 720p though).The following chart summarizes the different displays: iTouch Models Internal Display Output ScreenSize Resolution Pixels/Inch Comments iPod Touch "1G" 18 bits. TN TFT LCD 3.5" 480x320 163ppi iPod Touch "2G" 18 bits.

TN TFT LCD 3.5" 480x320 163ppi iPod Touch "3G" 18 bits. TN TFT LCD 3.5" 480x320 163ppi iPod Touch "4G" TN TFT LCD 3.5" 960x640 326ppi iPod Touch "5G" 24 bits. IPS TFT LCD 4.0" 1136x640 326ppi iPhone Models Internal Display Output ScreenSize Resolution Pixels/Inch Comments iPhone "2G" 18 bits. TN TFT LCD. 6 white LED-backlit 3.5" 480x320 163ppi iPhone 3G 18 bits. TN TFT LCD 3.5" 480x320 163ppi iPhone 3GS 18 bits + Spatial Dithering.

TN TFT LCD 3.5" 480x320 163ppi iPhone 4 24 bits. IPS TFT LCD. LED-backlit 3.5" 960x640 326ppi iPhone 4S 24 bits. IPS TFT LCD. LED-backlit 3.5" 960x640 326ppi iPhone 5 24 bits. IPS TFT LCD. LED-backlit 4.0" 1136x640 326ppi iPad Models Internal Display Output ScreenSize Resolution Pixels/Inch Comments iPad 24 bits. IPS TFT LCD. LED-backlit 9.7" 1024x768 132ppi iPad 2 24 bits. IPS TFT LCD. LED-backlit 9.

7" 1024x768 132ppi iPad 3 24 bits. IPS TFT LCD. LED-backlit 9.7" 2048x1536 264ppi iPad 4 24 bits. IPS TFT LCD. LED-backlit 9.7" 2048x1536 264ppi iPad Mini 24 bits. IPS TFT LCD. LED-backlit 7.9" 1024x768 163ppi iPad Mini 2 24 bits. IGZO LCD. LED-backlit 7.9" 2048x1536 326ppi Device Model External Display Output ScreenSize Resolution Pixels/Inch Comments All Dock Connector to Composite AV Cable NA 576i(PAL)/480i(NTSC) NA SDTV (interlace) All Dock Connector to Component AV Cable NA 576p(PAL)/480p(NTSC) NA SDTV (progressive) iPhone 4 Dock Connector to VGA/HDMI Cable NA 1024x768 and 1280x720 NA XGA iPod Touch "4G" Dock Connector to VGA/HDMI Cable NA 1024x768 and 1280x720 NA XGA iPad Dock Connector to VGA/HDMI Cable NA 1024x768 and 1280x720 NA XGA iPad 2 Dock Connector to VGA Cable NA 1024x768 and 1280x720 NA XGA iPad 2 Dock Connector to HDMI Cable NA 1920x1080p NA 1280x720p for video Here is a 500x magnification of iPhone 4S RGB pixel (in yellow), compared to the iPhone 4, iPhone 3GS, iPad 4, and iPad 2: The above pixel arrangements are exactly what you would see if you magnified the screen 500 times, with the Home button on the bottom.

Note the iPad 4 and iPad 2's screen needs to be turned clockwise (Home button on the left) to match the same RGB pixel arrangement as the iPhone. See PSVita Display Pixels and PSP Display Pixels to compare iPhone's pixels with other mobile devices. Display Color Space The iphone supports regular sRGB color space, but unfortunately, it does not support the full sRGB/Rec.709 standard color gamut. The iPhone (all models up to iPhone 4/4 (CDMA), and all iPod Touch) can only reproduce 64% of the sRGB/Rec.

709 standard color gamut, and as a result the images and videos tend to be under-saturated. The iPhone 5 seems to produce a greater percentage of sRGB (full 100% claimed). Display Color depth The number of bits used on the early iPhones to display a single pixel of color is 18 bits, with 6 bits used for each of the Red, Green, and Blue primary colors. 18 bits can provide a maximum of 262,144 colors (2^18).

Note that the standard on PC displays is True Color, using 8 bits for each of the primary colors, for a total of 24 bits per pixel. 24 bits can provide a maximum of 16,777,216 colors (2^24). The iPhone is outclassed by other mobile devices like the PlayStation Portable (PSP), which does use a 24 bit LCD display. The early iPhones are using very cheap LCD solutions to keep costs down.The iPhone 3GS uses 18 bits plus hardware dithering.

What this means is that compared to the iPhone 3G, it is still limited to 262,144 colors, but the iPhone 3GS has hardware that will try to place closely colored values in a pattern to "simulate" the intermediate value that it can't display directly. This will make the display "seem" to be able to display 24 bit True Color, when actually it can't. Starting with the iPhone 4 and the iPad, the display finally has the same quality of 24-bits per pixel seen on PC displays.

The iPad 4 seems to dynamically change contrast when playing video. This may indicate low color bits, or a badly implemented hardware based dynamic contrast. Either that, or perhaps the display is not high quality enough that the hardware changes the brightness for dark pictures or movies to compensate for inability to display different shades of dark scenes.[embedded content] iPhone Motherboard The iPhone motherboard with each revision tries to incorporate more and more functions into fewer and fewer chips.

Because data is usually stored on main memory, its speed (along with the bus between the main memory and the CPU) becomes critically important to performance. Note that the memory frequency can be higher or lower than the bus frequency, and the number of bits that can be transferred during each cycle is affected by bus size as well. However, in order to prevent memory access speed being a bottleneck, it is usually clocked higher than the bus frequency.

The following is a chart of the memory size and memory frequency, which provides a basic cap for speed of data transfers. These figures are from hw.memfrequency after doing a "sysctl -a" command running on the device jailbroken. LPDDR SDRAM stands for Low Power Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory. LPDDR uses 1.8V, while LPDDR2 uses 1.2V. Note that because the memory is "Double Data Rate" (from the term DDR), the memory frequency specification is sometimes listed as double the figures below.

Model Memory Size Memory Frequency Type Comments iPod Touch "1G" 128MB 137 Mhz LPDDR . iPod Touch "2G" 128MB 133 Mhz LPDDR . iPod Touch "3G" 256MB 200 Mhz LPDDR . iPod Touch "4G" 256MB 200 Mhz LPDDR . iPhone "2G" 128MB 137 Mhz LPDDR . iPhone 3G 128MB 137 Mhz LPDDR . iPhone 3GS 256MB 200 Mhz LPDDR . iPhone 4 512MB ? Mhz LPDDR iPhone 4 (CDMA) 512MB ? Mhz LPDDR iPad (All) 256MB 200 Mhz LPDDR .Samsung K4X2G643GE iPad 2 (All) 512MB ? Mhz LPDDR2 46nm, Samsung K4P2G324EC.

Elpida One thing that was revealed was that frequency can be modified via a firmware update. In the original iPhone "2G", the iPhone OS 1.1.2 update actually increased the memory frequency to 103 Mhz (from 100 Mhz). The iPhone, iPad, and iPod Touch uses the ARM CPU architecture, mainly using Samsung as manufacturer of choice. The iPod Touch "1G" and iPhone "2G"/3G uses the Samsung ARM 1176JZ(F)-S down-clocked to 412MHz.

For the iPhone Touch 2G, a ARM11 clocked at 533MHz and a ARM7 is used. The iPod Touch "3G" and iPhone 3GS use a similar Samsung manufactured Cortex-A8 is down-clocked to 600MHz. The iPhone 4 and iPad uses the 1GHz version of the Cortex-A8 (called Apple A4). The ARM 7 is for Java hardware acceleration (Jazelle), but Java is not supported, so it is not utilized. Note for the quoted Main Chip family name: these are application processors manufactured by Samsung that are similar to, but not the exact chip used inside the device.

Also, the APL prefix means by this time, Apple has had some input into the processor design. Device Main Chip ARM Tech ClockSpeed MaxSpeed Memory Bus Cache Process PipelineStages InstructionSetArchitecture EmbeddedDRAM Misc Die Marking Family L1 L2 iPhone "2G" S5L8900B01 S5L8900 ARM 11 (1176JZ(F)-S)ARM 7 (Jazelle) 412MHz 620MHz 32-bit 32KB Total (I+D) L1 No 90nm 8 ARMv6 Yes SIMD iPod Touch "1G" S5L8900B01 S5L8900 ARM 11 (1176JZ(F)-S)ARM 7 (Jazelle) 412MHz 620MHz 32-bit 32KB Total (I+D) L1 No 90nm 8 ARMv6 Yes SIMD iPhone 3G S5L8900B02 S5L8900 ARM 11 (1176JZ(F)-S)ARM 7 (Jazelle) 412MHz 620MHz 32-bit 32KB Total (I+D) L1 No 90nm 8 ARMv6 Yes iPod Touch "2G" APL0278A00 S5L8720 (ARM940T) ARM 11 (1176 v4)ARM 7 (Jazelle) 532MHz 620MHz 32-bit 32KB Total (I+D) L1 No 65nm 8 ARMv6 No iPhone 3GS APL0298C05 S5L8920 ARM Cortex-A8 600MHz 833MHz 32-bit 64KB Total (I+D) L1 256KB L2 65nm 13 ARMv7 No iPod Touch "3G" APL2298A02 S5L8922 ARM Cortex-A8 600MHz 833MHz 32-bit 64KB Total (I+D) L1 45nm 13 ARMv7 No iPad (all) APL0398B01 (A4) S5L8930 ARM Cortex-A8 1GHz 1GHz 64-bit 64KB Total (I+D) L1 512KB L2 45nm 13 ARMv7 No NEON extension supportVXD375 video processor iPhone 4 (A4) S5L8930 ARM Cortex-A8 800MHz 1GHz 64-bit 64KB Total (I+D) L1 512KB L2 45nm 13 ARMv7 No NEON extension supportVXD375 video processor iPhone 4 (CDMA) (A4) S5L8930 ARM Cortex-A8 800MHz 1GHz 64-bit 64KB Total (I+D) L1 512KB L2 45nm 13 ARMv7 No NEON extension supportVXD375 video processor iPhone 4S (all) APL0498? (A5) S5L8940 ARM Cortex-A9 (2 Core) 1GHz 1GHz 64-bit 64KB Total (I+D) L1 512KB L2 45nm 13 ARMv7 No NEON extension supportVXD375 video processor iPod Touch "4G" (A4) S5L8930 ARM Cortex-A8 800MHz 1GHz 64-bit 64KB Total (I+D) L1 512KB L2 45nm 13 ARMv7 No NEON extension supportVXD375 video processor iPad 2 (all) APL0498E01 (A5) S5L8940 ARM Cortex-A9 (2 Core) 1GHz 1GHz 64-bit 64KB Total (I+D) L1 512KB L2 45nm 13 ARMv7 No NEON extension supportVXD375 video processor iPad 3 (all) APL0498? (A5X) ? ARM Cortex-A9 (2 Core) 1GHz 1GHz 64-bit 64KB Total (I+D) L1 512KB L2 32nm 13 ARMv7 No NEON extension supportVXD375 video processor One important feature that is missing in a lot of mobile devices is L2 Cache.

A Cache is the memory buffer to speed up loading of data from the DRAM and giving it to the CPU. L1 is inside the CPU, and L2 is usually located outside, between the CPU and main memory. If the L2 cache is too small, reading and writing from main memory becomes a bottleneck. The Cortex A-8 can have a maximum of 1MB L2 Cache, but most implementations will have less than this maximum amount. Apple also does not like to report the actual CPU clockspeed, and many times, information are not even publicly available in the device.

For example, hw.cpufrequency from "sysctl -a" command reveals 0 when run on a jailbroken iPhone 4.Note that you can increase the CPU clock frequency, and thus increase the speed of the processor. Apple has done this once already via a firmware update. Outside of official firmware updates, you would need to jailbreak your device to manually overclock the CPU. The max CPU speed is usually a multiplier of the bus speed.

The Bus speed is easily found out by looking at field hw.busfrequency from a "sysctl -a" command running from a jailbroken iOS device. Model Bus Frequency Bus Width Comments iPod Touch "1G" 103 Mhz 32-bit . iPod Touch "2G" 133 Mhz 32-bit . iPod Touch "3G" 100 Mhz 32-bit iPod Touch "4G" 100 Mhz 64-bit . iPhone "2G" 103 Mhz 32-bit . iPhone 3G 103 Mhz 32-bit . iPhone 3GS 100 Mhz 32-bit . iPhone 4 100 Mhz 64-bit .

iPhone 4 (CDMA) 100 Mhz 64-bit . iPad (All) 100 Mhz 64-bit . iPad 2 (All) 250 Mhz 64-bit . The PowerVR is a graphical processor unit (GPU). The technology of PowerVR was actually invented for the Sega DreamCast game console (back in late 1999). It lost to nVidia and ATI when competing for the PC (personal computer) market because of low performance. Imagine Technologies (the designer of PowerVR series of GPU) then repackaged the PowerVR for the mobile market (hence for the iPhone) at low cost.

The iPhone "2G"/3G have the less capable PowerVR MBX-Lite graphics chip. The iPhone 3GS has the more powerful PowerVR SGX. The main difference is the faster speed and support of OpenGL ES 2.0 in the PowerVR SGX. The iPhone 3GS/4, iPad, and the iPod Touch "3G" contains a SGX 535.Note that the GPU clock speed affects overall graphical performance, and battery draining speed as well. Many manufactures don't release these figures (quite hesitant), and getting the actual frequency right is quite difficult.

However, it is usually a multiple or fraction of the Bus Speed. The following figures have never been confirmed publicly by the GPU nor device manufacturer, and are subject to change when better evidence comes to light. Model GPU GPU Frequency OpenGL ES Version Comments iPod Touch "1G" PowerVR MBX-Lite 103 Mhz 1.1 iPod Touch "2G" PowerVR MBX-Lite 100? Mhz 1.1 iPod Touch "3G" PowerVR SGX 535 (200 Mhz ?) 2.

0 Uses ARMv7 processor iPod Touch "4G" PowerVR SGX 535 (200 Mhz ?) 2.0 Uses ARMv7 processor iPhone "2G" PowerVR MBX-Lite 103 MHz 1.1 iPhone 3G PowerVR MBX-Lite 103 MHz 1.1 iPhone 3GS PowerVR SGX 535 150 MHz (200 ?) 2.0 65nm. Uses ARMv7 processor iPhone 4 PowerVR SGX 535 (>200 Mhz ?) 2.0 iPhone 4 (CDMA) PowerVR SGX 535 (>200 Mhz ?) 2.0 iPad (All) PowerVR SGX 535 (>200 Mhz ?) 2.0 Uses ARMv7 processor iPad 2 (All) PowerVR SGX 543MP2 (>200 Mhz ?) 2.

0 Uses ARMv7 processor Here are the benchmarks for doing the most basic low level 3D triangles on each device (Flat Shaded + Color): iPhone 2G: 670,000 Triangles/second iPhone 3G: 703,000 Triangles/second iPhone 3GS: 6,555,000 Triangles/second iPad: 6,538,000 Triangles/second Note that those figures above are for the most basic non-textured triangles and provides the maximum practically achievable ceiling of performance.

Any 3D application will have many times substantially less triangles, because of texturing and other fancy lighting and shading. Most paper specs do not reflect real world performance, as the figures above reveal. For example, the SGX 535 in the iPhone 3GS has a paper spec of 28 million triangles per second, more than 4 times the benchmarked performance figure. The PSP is stated to perform 33 million triangles per second.

All PowerVR graphics chips use Tile-Based Deferred Rendering in hardware. Essentially what it does is break up the screen into tiles and process each tile independently, rather than process the whole screen in whole. Because of this quirk, it is harder to program on, and the graphical effects (like texturing) are highly dependent on fixed hardware implementation. The SGX's terminology for its programmable shader is USSE (Universal Scalar Shader Engine), and actually uses an embedded ARMv7 CPU to do most of its work.

Most of the differences between the generations of the SGX is based on the variation of number of ALU (Arithmetic Logic Units) and TMU (Texture Mapping Units). PowerVR chip ALU TMU Fillrate Comments MBX Lite 1 1 Pixel/2 Clocks OpenGL ES 1.1 SGX 520 1 USSE1 1 SGX 530 2 USSE1 1 SGX 531 2 USSE1 1 128 bit bus SGX 535 2 USSE1 2 2 Pixels/Clock OpenGL 2.0, DirectX 9 support SGX 540 4 USSE1 2 SGX 543 4 USSE2 2 2-16 cores SGX 545 4 USSE1 2 OpenGL 2.

0/3.0, DirectX 9/10.1 support The PowerVR MBX Lite (in the iPhone 3G) only had 1 TMU, and used 2 clock cycles to process each pixel.The iPad A4 CPU contains a helper VXD375 chip to help out with HD (720p) video (not 3D graphics) encoding and decoding. The iPod Touch and iPhones mainly contains from 4GB to 64GB of NAND flash storage memory. The iPod Touch "3G" has a 64GB model. The iPad/iPad 2 varies from 16GB, 32GB, and 64GB.

Before there was flash memory, computers usually used a floppy disk or harddrive. In small devices, it is more feasible to simply store data in non-volatile flash memory. The iPhone 3GS contains Toshiba flash memory chips.Example chips:iPad 2 Wi-Fi 16GB: Toshiba TH58NVG7D2FLA89 16GB NAND FlashNote that this is the same type of flash memory found in flash memory cards like SanDisk, Memory Stick, and CompactFlash.

It is unfortunate that Apple decided to leave out a flash memory card slot and force users to choose iPhone models based on fixed amount of non-removeable flash memory. Firmware Flash Memory In addition to regular storage flash memory, the iPhone also has additional NOR flash memory to store bootup code (similar to BIOS in PC). This data usually holds the minimum operating system for booting up the device.

After booting up it lets other instructions stored in the storage flash memory to take over.The original iPhone "2G" has 4MB of NOR flash and some DDR memory.The iPhone 3G has 16MB of NOR flash (with 8MB of DDR RAM built in).The iPhone 3GS has 16MB of NOR flash (with 64MB of DDR RAM built in). Firmware Versions The iPhone, iPod Touch, and iPad firmware is updated frequently, and sometimes within a single version there may be many different builds.

The firmware update is located in a file with extension .ipsw (stands for IPhone SoftWare) and you can download it manually or have iTunes download it automatically. The following is a brief description of each version. Note that the firmware contains a payload to update the baseband firmware (called Modem Firmware on iPhone and iPad 3G Settings). The baseband chip is responsible for communicating with the cell towers.

Because of differing baseband hardware, some firmware updates contain multiple baseband firmware to match the correct hardware (for example, iPhone "2G" and 3G have differing cellular hardware). For iPod Touch (all), since there is no baseband chip, it is not installed from the firmware update (if included at all). The official operating system name from the firmware became iOS in June, 2010. Note that iPhone "2G" and iPod Touch 1G only supports up to iOS version 3.

1.3, and iPhone 3G and iPod Touch 2G only supports up to iOS version 4.2.1. Firmware Build Baseband iPhone iPod Touch iPad "2G" 3G 3GS 4 "1G" "2G" "3G" Wi-Fi 3G 1.0 1A420 (Prototype) "2G" 1.0 1A543a 03.11.02_G "2G" 1.0.1 1C25 03.12.08_G "2G" 1.0.2 1C28 03.14.08_G "2G" 1.1.0 3A100a "1G" 1.1.0 3A101a "1G" 1.1.1 3A109a "2G" 1.1.1 3A110a "1G" 1.

1.2 3B48a 04.01.13_G "2G" 1.1.2 3B48b 04.02.13_G "2G" "1G" 1.1.3 4A93 04.03.13_G "2G" "1G" 1.1.4 4A102 04.04.05_G "2G" "1G" 1.1.5 4B1 "1G" Firmware Build Baseband iPhone iPod Touch iPad "2G" 3G 3GS 4 "1G" "2G" "3G" Wi-Fi 3G 2.0 5A345 3G 2.0 5A347 04.05.04_G "2G" "1G" 01.45.00 3G 2.0.1 5B108 04.05.04_G "2G" "1G" 01.48.02 3G 2.0.2 5C1 04.

05.04_G "2G" "1G" 02.08.01 3G 2.1 5F136 04.05.04_G "2G" 02.11.07 3G 2.1 5F137 "1G" 2.1.1 5F138 "2G" 2.2 5G77 04.05.04_G "2G" "1G" 02.28.00 3G 2.2 5G77a "2G" 2.2.1 5H11 04.05.04_G "2G" "1G" 02.30.03 3G 2.2.1 5H11a "2G" Firmware Build Baseband iPhone iPod Touch iPad "2G" 3G 3GS 4 "1G" "2G" "3G" Wi-Fi 3G 3.0 7A341 04.05.04_G "2G" "1G" "2G" 04.

26.08 3G 3GS 3.0.1 7A400 04.05.04_G "2G" 04.26.08 3G 3GS 3.1 7C144 04.05.04_G "2G" 05.11.07 3G 3GS 3.1.1 7C145 "1G" "2G" "3G" 3.1.1 7C146 "3G" 3.1.2 7D11 04.05.04_G "2G" "1G" "2G" "3G" 05.11.07 3G 3GS 3.1.3 7E18 04.05.04_G "2G" "1G" "2G" "3G" 05.12.01 3G 3GS 3.2 7B367 Wi-Fi 3G 3.2.1 7B405 Wi-Fi 3G Firmware Build Baseband iPhone iPod Touch iPad "2G" 3G 3GS 4 "1G" "2G" "3G" Wi-Fi 3G 4.

0 8A230m (developer) 5.13.04 3G 3GS "2G" "3G" 4.0 8A293 5.13.04 3G 3GS "2G" "3G" 4.0.1 8A306 5.13.04 3G 3GS 4 4.1 B5080c (developer) 5.13.04 3G 3GS 4 "2G" "3G" Battery Apple does not like people opening up their devices, so the battery is not changeable by ordinary consumers because there is no removable battery cover. On the top right corner of the LCD is a battery icon indicating how much power is left (turns from green to red when battery is running out).

You can make it also show a percentage by going into Settings app, select General -> Usage option, and turn on Battery Percentage.iPhone 4: 1420mAh 3.7V (5.25Whr) Li-ion Polymer BatteryiPhone 3GS: 1219mAh 3.7V BatteryiPhone 3G: 1146mAh 3.7V BatteryiPhone "2G": 1400mAh 3.7V BatteryiPod Touch "1G": Li-ion Polymer BatteryiPod Touch "2G": 3.7V Li-ion Polymer BatteryiPod Touch "4G": 3.7V (3.44Whr) Li-ion Polymer BatteryiPad Wi-Fi: 3.

75V 24.8 Watt-hours BatteryiPad 2 (all): 6930mAh 3.8V 25 Watt-hours Li-ion Polymer Battery (A1376)The battery life varies depending on what you are using the iPhone for, and the older the battery the shorter the life. Here is a typical breakdown of the battery life of an iPhone 3GS (using a fairly new battery). 3D Games: 2 hours 2D Games: 4 hours 3G Talk Time: 6 hours 3G Internet: 6 hours Wi-Fi Internet: 10.

5 hours Playing Video: 12 hours Playing Audio: 1.5 days Standby: 2 weeks Once depleted, an typical recharge of an iPhone 3GS battery takes about 3.5 hours.Note that the iPhone battery's connection in the original iPhone "2G" was soldered on, and you could not remove the batteries easily. This has changed in the iPhone 3G/3GS, allowing easy removal without melting the solder. Because lithium ion batteries degrade with use, after two or more years of heavy use, your iPhone will need battery replacement (unless you enjoy recharging after every 30 minutes of talk time).

However, removal of the battery is extremely difficult even in the 3GS, requiring special tools. Unlike all other major cell phones, the iPhone doesn't have a dedicated battery cover you can easily remove. This is another major poor design (in addition to the missing flash memory card slot) in the iPhone. Unfortunatly, all the iPod Touch models ("1G"/"2G"/"3G"/"4G") have the battery soldered onto the motherboard.

Every iPhone model (and all iPod Touch and iPad models) contains a 3-axis accelerometer from STMicroelectronics, which detects absolute angle orientation of the device about two axis (roll and pitch) and relative linear movement about three axis (X, Y, and Z axis). Please note that with this chip alone the iPhone can only determine the absolute degree angle of the device in reference to gravity (thus the roll and pitch detection, not yaw).

The chip provides two gravity detection units on each axis. What this generally means is that you can know the direction to the ground for the two detection units of any axis on the iphone and from this comparison derive the absolute angle (or rotation) in degrees the device is tilted on any side in reference to the ground (but this does not provide the degrees any side is rotated from magnetic north).

If 3D relative linear movement detection was not needed, a 2-axis accelerometer would have sufficed (a lack of yaw detection from gravity), but your iPhone's initial state may not always be flat on the table, so you need the 3rd axis to allow any angular tilt of the device as a starting initial state. The linear acceleration movement detection is relative to current position, not absolute to a fixed position in space, so it has no idea how far it moved, only how fast (relatively) it has moved in any 3D direction before you stopped moving it.

Note that it is an accelerometer, so if you are moving in a stable direction at a constant speed, but never accelerating, nor slowing down, you will have no relative linear movement detection. In addition, during constant dynamic movement or accelerating (like in a car or elevator), it will affect the accuracy of the angular rotation readout (especially when you have vertical movement), because you will add or subtract from the acceleration of gravity, besides being confused which directional acceleration is gravity.

In other words, with a 3-axis accelerometer, besides relative linear movement detection in any direction, the iPhone can detect very accurately what absolute degree angle the device is tilted or rotated (on any side) in reference to a fixed ground plane, but it would have no idea which corner or which area of the device is closer to north, east, south, or west.The iPad/iPad 2 uses STMicro STM-LIS331DLH 3-axis accelerometer.

The iPhone 4 uses STMicro STM33DH 3-axis accelerometer. The iPhone 4, iPod Touch "4G", and iPad 2 contain a 3-axis gyroscope. The difference between a gyroscope and an accelerometer is that a gyroscope can better detect relative degree of rotation on any of the three axis (roll, pitch, and yaw) even if the iPhone is currently moving or accelerating in a certain direction (like in a car or elevator).

Please note that this angled degree of rotation detection is only relative, not absolute (which the 3-axis accelerometer can do on the two axis of roll and pitch). In other words, with a 3-axis gyroscope, the iPhone can detect very accurately how much you have rotated on any axis (again, not just roll and pitch, but yaw also) while you are rotating it, but can't tell you the exact angular rotational degree your iphone is current held at on any of the axis in reference to a fixed plane (like the flat ground), nor to an absolution yaw direction like magnetic north.

The iPhone 4 uses STMicro L3G4200D 3-axis gyroscope.The iPad 2 uses the AGD8 2103 3-axis gyroscope. The iPhone 3GS/4 and iPad also contain a 3-axis electronic compass (magnetometer) from an Asahi Kasei (AKM), which allows detection of the direction of magnetic north. With this additional digital compass chip, you can tell which direction the iPhone or iPad is pointing when flat on the table (or even which corner is closer to the north from any current angular tilt because it is 3-axis).

Note that unlike a gyroscope, a magnetometer can detect absolute yaw rotation to a fixed direction like north, and not limited to relative yaw. In companion with GPS data, it allows for hardware assisted turn-by-turn GPS. It is unfortunate that the iPod Touch devices do not have a digital compass, as this is useful for certain location aware applications like navigational, augmented reality, and certain types of 3D games.

The iPhone 3GS and iPad uses the AKM8973 chip.The iPhone 4 uses the AKM8975 chip. Ambient Light Sensor The iPhone, iPad, and iPod Touch devices have an ambient light sensor near the top of the device. This sensor detects the amount of light so it can adjust the brightness of the LCD to save battery life. If you are in a dark room, the LCD will lower in brightness automatically. All iPhones have a proximity sensor near the top left of the device.

The iPod Touch and iPad do not have this feature. It detects when your face is close to the phone so that the screen can be powered off to save battery life. It also turns off the touch screen so that you don't accidentally press buttons with parts of your face when talking. Sometimes you may use the iPhone at night, so you can't just use the Ambient Light Sensor to detect if your face is next to the phone (having covered all the lights).

The initial batch of iPhone 4 were different from later batches, and one of the differences is having faulty proximity sensoring. In earlier batches the sensor had difficulty detecting proximity and you could hardly see the sensor from the front. These iPhone 4 sometimes can't detect when your face is near the LCD, so parts of your face may press buttons on the screen because the touch screen was never turned off.

In later iPhone 4 batches, the proximity sensor can be seen clearly (a thin dark rectangle just above the ear speaker), and the accidental button pressing (like the mute button) is not a problem because the touch screen is correctly turned off. These iPhone 4 with later manufacturing week (30 or later) seem to have solved this problem. Moisture Sensor There are moisture sensitive areas inside all the devices (except iPad 2) to detect whether water was the cause of malfunction if the device was returned.

There are two that you can see externally without taking apart the phone (in particular, inside the microphone port has one, and in the 30-pin dock). More are inside the device (to detect whether it was real immersion or just leaving it in the shower room). This moisture sensor, called Liquid Contact Indicator (LCI), is a filter paper that changes color when exposed to 95% humidity. Unfortunately, in some areas of the world like Hong Kong, it is common to have humidity exceeding 95% in certain months of the year.

The moisture sensor turns pinkish/reddish in color when exposed to liquid. The iPad 2 does not have moisture sensors. [embedded content]Second Apple Store in Hong Kong (Festival Walk).Many iPhone and iPod Touch and iPad specific peripherals or accessories exist that plug into the 30-pin socket at the bottom of the device. Note that Apple usually places a special chip inside these peripherals (wired accessories) that communicate with your device to let it know that the peripheral was approved by Apple.

This is to prevent people from buying cheaper cables and accessories. Homebrew code can usually bypass this check. Apple also disables Bluetooth peripherals made by other companies (for example, the Sony Wireless Keypad is not supported at all. Even on the Mac computers, although it works with Mac OS X in earlier versions, it is disabled purposely in newer OS X versions). The Sony Wireless Headset works though.

The following is a listing of peripherals from Apple. Note that a plug is male and protrudes, while a socket is female and accepts plugs. Model Number Name Description Compatibility A1016 Wireless Bluetooth keyboard This wireless keyboard works with your device via Bluetooth and requires 4 batteries. Includes numeric pad. Requires iOS 4 and later versions. iPhone 3Gs and later modelsiPod Touch "3G" and later modelsiPad (all) A1205 USB Charger Adapter Plugs directly into power outlet (prongs retractable) and allows charging your device via USB socket in back of unit.

All A1221 iPhone Bluetooth headset Wireless Bluetooth (mono single ear) headset for your device. iPhone (all)iPod Touch "2G" and later modelsiPad (all) A1232 USB Cable + Bluetooth Charger 30-pin plug and bluetooth headset socket to allow charging both the iPhone and the Bluetooth headset (A1211) at the same time via USB extension plug. All A1234 Dual Dock Charger 30-pin plug and bluetooth headset socket for docking your device and the Bluetooth headset (A1211) upright and charging at the same time via included USB extension plug in the back.

Extra headphone socket in back of unit. All A1255 Wireless Bluetooth keyboard This wireless keyboard works with your device via Bluetooth and requires 3 batteries. No numeric pad. Requires iOS 4 and later versions. iPhone 3Gs and later modelsiPod Touch "3G" and later modelsiPad (all) A1256 Universal Dock with Remote 30-pin plug for docking your device upright. Includes infrared remote control to control music.

Headphone socket and 30-pin socket extension in back of unit. USB socket in front of unit. All A1258 Dock Connector to Composite AV Cable 30-pin plug on one end, and four plugs on other end (Audio Right, Audio Left, Composite Video, and USB plug for charging your device at the same time). Connects your device to SDTV. Output limited to 480i (NTSC) or 576i (PAL). All A1259 Dock Connector to Component AV Cable 30-pin plug on one end, and six plugs on other end (Audio Right, Audio Left, Red/Green/Blue plugs, and USB plug for charging your device at the same time).

Connects your device to SDTV. Output limited to 480p (NTSC) or 576p (PAL). All A1265 USB Power Adapter Plugs directly into power outlet (two prongs) and allows charging your device via USB socket in back of unit. All A1314 Wireless Bluetooth keyboard This wireless keyboard works with your device via Bluetooth and requires 2 batteries. No numeric pad. Requires iOS 4 and later versions. iPhone 3Gs and later modelsiPod Touch "3G" and later modelsiPad (all) A1358 Dock Connector to USB Adapter 30-pin plug to USB socket adapter.

Part of the iPad Camera Connection Kit (Camera Connector). Made for connecting your device to cameras (but works with USB keyboards and USB headsets). Note that this peripheral looks like the non-compatible iPod (4th Gen and 5th Gen) camera connectors: M9861G/A, M9861G/B, and M9861G/C. Normally, when you use the 30-pin plug to usb plug cable to connect your device to a PC, your device is treated like a picture storage unit of a camera (or USB flash storage) and the PC is host.

With this accessory, your device becomes like the PC (a host), and you can plug in a camera via USB and manipulate or pull pictures from it. Note that the camera is treated like a picture storage unit via USB, and not a USB based webcam for video input. Because your device is now a USB host, it can talk to other peripherals like USB keyboards and USB headsets/speakers/microphone, including another iPhone or iPod Touch to manipulate their images (not as an extra camera for video in signal).

iPad (all) A1359 iPad Keyboard Dock 30-pin plug to a stand with physical keyboard. No numeric pad. iPhone 3Gs and later modelsiPod Touch "2G" and later modelsiPad (all) A1362 Dock Connector to SD Card Reader 30-pin plug to SD Flash card socket adapter. Part of the iPad Camera Connection Kit (SD Card Reader). Allows you to plug in and read SD cards. iPad (all) A1368 Dock Connector to VGA adapter 30-pin plug to VGA socket cable.

Allows 1024x768 XGA and 1280x720p output to external VGA compatible monitors. iPhone 4 and later modelsiPod Touch "4G" and later modelsiPad (all) A1388 Dock Connector to HDMI adapter 30-pin plug to HDMI socket cable. Includes a 30-pin dock socket next to the HDMI socket to allow external power input (because the batteries in iOS devices can't power the HDMI output for extended periods of time). Allows 1280x720p output to external HDMI compatible displays on iPad 1/2, iPod Touch 4, and iPhone 4.

Allows 1920x1080p output on iPad 2. iPhone 4 and later modelsiPod Touch "4G" and later modelsiPad (all) When using the Bluetooth headset for conversing, there are special iPhone signals and commands done through the voice recognition module.When connected to the Sony CEJH-15002 wireless headset for the PS3, pressing the "Power" button once will activate voice recognition. Wait for two short medium pitched beeps, then speak "call" or "dial" followed by the digits of the phone number, or name of the contact.

The following is the voice recognition response signals:If voice recognition command is not recognized, there will be two short low pitched beeps.If voice recognition command is recognized, there will be two short high pitched beeps.If voice recognition command is recognized, but needs further input, there will be two short medium pitched beeps followed by one short high pitched beep.An example of needing further input, if you tried to call or dial using name of a contact, and this person has multiple numbers, you will be asked to speak the type of number (home, iPhone, mobile, etc).

Wait for the two short medium beeps again, and say the type. Reference the above voice recognition response signals again for the status of your voice command.If voice recognition successful, then: One long high pitched beep, means the iPhone is dialing. One long high pitched beep, means the iPhone is hanging up (if you pressed the "Power" button during conversation). Others Peripherals The iPhone, iPod Touch, and iPad can support Bluetooth peripherals, so there is an unlimited list of future peripherals that can be connected, as long as the Bluetooth profile for your peripheral is supported.

They also support USB devices via the Dock Connector to USB adapter (but Apple calls it camera adapter because they only want you to use it for connecting to cameras). At this moment, you can use USB keyboards and USB headsets via this USB adapter, and this is supported on the iPad just fine. [embedded content]Because the iPhone has support for applications that gets added and updated frequently, it would be difficult to enumerate all of them.

However, one aspect that is important, and is related to software, is protocols supported by iOS devices. Usually, these protocols requires an external iOS device, Mac, or an extra purchased peripheral. New applications are being released every day and there is a desire from many iPhone users to having the latest applications. If you are interested in a new application, check to make sure that it is compatible with your iPhone.

AirPlay (protocol) - Allows sending video and audio from iOS devices to remote TV and speakers. Supported iOS Apps: Photos iPod Media Input Location: iPhone iPod Touch iPad Media Output Location: AppleTV connected displays and speakers Macs (with AirPlayer OSX application installed) connected displays and speakers Controller: iOS device Home Sharing (protocol) - Allows sending video and audio from iTunes libray to iOS devices.

Supported iOS Apps: Photos iPod Media Input Location: AppleTV Macs (with iTunes) Media Output Location: iPhone iPod Touch iPad Controller: iOS device Remote (iOS App) - Allows commanding iTunes on Mac or AppleTV to play audio or video to their connected displays and speakers Supported iOS Apps: Media Input Location: Mac or AppleTV Media Output Location: Mac or AppleTV Controller: iOS device AirPrint - (protocol) - Allows printing from iOS devices to printers supporting AirPrint, or connected to AirPrint supported Macs.

Media Input Location: iOS device Media Output Location: Mac connected printer Controller: iOS device FaceTime (protocol) - Allows video chats over WiFi between Macs and iOS devices with cameras Supported iOS Apps: Phone (iPhone) FaceTime (iPod Touch and iPad) Media Input Location: Mac with FaceTime application installed, or any iOS device supporting FaceTime Media Output Location: Mac with FaceTime application installed, or any iOS device supporting FaceTime Controller: Mac with FaceTime application installed, or any iOS device supporting FaceTime Note that AirPrint and AirPlay first became available in iOS 4.

2, so iPhone "2G" and iPod Touch 1G does not support it. In addition, even though iPhone 3G and iPod Touch 2G supports up to 4.2.1, AirPrint is disabled in these iOS devices by Apple to get people to upgrade to iPhone 4 and iPod Touch 3GS. You can enable AirPrint, however, by simply jailbreaking using Redsn0w for 4.2.1. Also, for AirPlay, it was disabled in iPhone 3G, but not iPod Touch 2G.Note that Home Sharing first became available in iOS 4.

3, so iPhone "2G"/3 and iPod Touch 1G/2G does not support it. Unlike a regular computer, the iPhone contains a separate chip (baseband chip) running a separate operating system for communicating with the cell towers. Therefore, because of the two operating systems (iOS for the main CPU and another separate OS running on the baseband chip), any attempt at describing the security layers must take into account which of the two is being described.

The iPhone also has its own unique terminology for many things related to its security that is different from personal computers.Jailbreak: Hacking the iPhone to allow installation of homebrew programs on the main CPU.Unlock: Hacking the iPhone to allow usage of GSM SIM cards from different network carriers (modification of baseband firmware running on Baseband CPU).Note that some iPhones are sold unlocked (iPhones from Belgium, Hong Kong, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, and United Arab Emirates for example).

Note that for iPhone and iPads based on the A4 chip, there is a hardware-based encryption layer done by the flash controller, so simply removing the NAND chips won't allow you to dump the contents without it being decrypted. Bootup process Stage 1: Secure BootloaderStage 2: LLB (Low Level Bootloader)Stage 3: iBoot iBoot The iBoot is the BootRom code that is run on the main CPU when booting your device up or when going into Recovery mode.

The DFU (Device Firmware Upgrade) mode skips the running of this iBoot code. This iBoot code is usually the main security layer when starting up the iOS operating system. The only way to know your iBoot version is to start up your device in DFU mode (see Super Secrets section of this page), and look at the properties of your attached device from your personal computer or Mac. It should have the format SRTG:[iBoot-xxx.

xx], where xxx.xx is the iBoot version.Here is a sampling of the iBoot versions from various devices: iPod Touch "2G": iBoot-240.4 iPod Touch "2G": iBoot-240.5.1 iPhone 3GS: iBoot-359.3 iPhone 3GS: iBoot-359.3.2 iPod Touch "3G": iBoot-359.5 The iBoot BootRom is never updated during firmware upgrade, because it is ROM (Read Only Memory), so the only way to modify the BootRom is to swap the chip containing the code.

Many times, the BootRom is changed to prevent hacking. Later model iPhone 3GS had newer version of BootRom shipped for the express purpose of preventing the ability of installing code not authorized by Apple.For the iPhone "2G" and 3G, here are the iBoot versions with matching firmware versions: iBoot-99 (1A420 Prototype) iBoot-159 (1.0.x) iBoot-204 (1.1/1.1.1 3A109a) iBoot-204.0.2 (1.1.1 3A110a) iBoot-204.

2.9 (1.1.2) iBoot-204.3.14 (1.1.3/1.1.4) iBoot-204.3.16 (1.1.5) iBoot-320.20 (2.0.x) iBoot-385.22 (2.1/2.1.1) iBoot-385.49 (2.2/2.2.1) iBoot-596.24 (3.0/3.0.1) iBoot-636.65 (3.1/3.1.1) iBoot-636.66 (3.1.1/3.1.2) iBoot-636.66.33 (3.1.3) Baseband Bootloader The Baseband Bootloader is different from the iBoot, as it is responsible for booting up the baseband software only. This bootloader runs on the Baseband CPU, not the main CPU.

For the iPhone "2G", you can change the Bandband Bootloader code by reflashing the appropriate baseband chip via software. Here are the baseband bootloader versions for some shipping devices: iPhone "2G": 3.9 iPhone "2G": 4.6 iPhone 3G: 05.08 iPhone 3G: 05.09 iPhone 3G: 06.02 iPhone 3G: 06.04 iPhone 3GS: 6.4 Baseband software The Baseband software is an operating system running inside the Baseband chip, and is started by the Baseband Bootloader.

This software is what controls the baseband chip to communicate with the cell towers, and thus allow you to use cell 2G and 3G functionality on your device. The iPod Touch and iPad Wi-Fi do not utilize any of this software.The iPhone "2G" runs the Nucleus OS baseband software on the PMB8876 baseband CPU (S-Gold 2).The iPhone 3G/3GS and iPad 3G runs Nucleus OS baseband software on the PMB8878 baseband CPU (X-Gold 608).

The iPhone 4 runs the ThreadX OS baseband software on the PMB9800 baseband CPU (X-Gold 618).There are many versions of the Baseband software. During iOS firmware update, the baseband will also get updated if the firmware update also contains a payload of a newer version of the baseband software. However, if you are downgrading via iTunes, the baseband will normally not get downgraded to the one located in the firmware update unless you do it in DFU mode.

Look at Firmware Versions for a list of Baseband versions included in each iOS Firmware update. An unlocked baseband just means the baseband software has parameters not tied to any specific carrier in order to work. Encryption Keys The iPhone uses two types of 128-bit AES keys. The first type is a group key that is the same for a group of devices (like the iPhone and iPod Touch). The second type is a user key that is unique for each device.

ECID Starting with the iPhone 3GS (and iPod Touch 3G), there is a chip in every device containing a unique 16 digit ECID (Exclusive Chip ID). This ECID number is sent to apple servers to obtain special certificates to sign the firmware your device will upgrade (or downgrade). These certificates are contained in iBSS and iBEC files. If the signature is not valid (which means apple did not sign off on the certificates using your ECID) your device will reject the firmware install.

The ECID can be viewed by entering DFU mode (similar procedure as viewing iBoot version). Note that because iPhone "2G"/3G and iPod Touch "1G"/"2G" do NOT have the ECID chip, these devices can always have their firmware downgraded or upgraded without getting Apple to sign anything. Default Admin Accounts and Passwords Because the iPhone is derived from unix, there is a root account that has full privileges.

You can use this account to log into the iPhone and read and write any file (with just a few exceptions). Another account is mobile, which also has some administrative privileges. Both these accounts are in the super user group: wheelOn 1.0.2 firmware and earlier:The root username password is: dottieThe mobile username password is: alpineOn 1.1.1 and later firmwares:The root username password is: alpineThe mobile username password is: dottieOn even later firmwares:The root username password is: alpineThe mobile username password is: alpineThe unix command for changing your currently logged in username's password is: passwdYou can either use that command to change your password or edit /etc/master.

passwd file on your iphone. That file contains a 13 character hash of the root and mobile password (using a fairly weak DES 64-bit encryption from unix command crypt). You can use any crypt compatible tools to hash a new password and replace the hash value in /etc/master.passwd with your new generated one.When something goes wrong with your iphone and you restore the firmware, the root and mobile passwords will get reset back to the default above, so you would need to change it again.

Filesystem Layout The following is the directory structure of a typical iPhone 3GS that has been jailbroken with homebrew installed. These files are stored on the flash storage memory. / .fseventsd/ Applications/: Symbolic link to /var/stash/Applications.*/ directory bin/ boot/ cores/ dev/ Developer/ etc/ lib/ Library/ mnt/ private/ sbin/ System/ Library/ Audio/ UISounds/: Directory containing iPhone User Interface sounds *.

caf: Name of User Interface audio file tmp/: Symbolic link to /var/tmp/ directory User/: Symbolic link to /var/mobile/ directory usr var/ stash/ Applications.*/: Location of installed official Apple iPhone apps and Cydia apps. *.app/: Name of directory containing an official iPhone app or installed Cydia app. Ringtones.*/: Location of installed Ringtones *.m4r: Name of Ringtone audio file mobile/ Applications/ */: UUID directory name of installed AppStore apps *.

app/: Name of directory of an installed AppStore app. Media/ DCIM/ 100APPLE/ IMG_*.JPG: Camera picture files IMG_*.MOV: Camera video files Recordings/ *.m4a: Voice Memos audio files Apps that are being downloaded, will have a UUID directory under /var/mobile/Applications/. Once the download completes, /var/stash/Applications/ directory will contain the correct files after being installed. Therefore, iCloud restores will usually create lots of /var/mobile/Applications/ UUID directories, awaiting downloading from the internet.

Broken downloads can be fixed by deleting the UUID directory of the broken application, and rebooting, whereby you can now delete the unfinished app icon. iPod Touch user agent string Mozila/5.0 (iPod; U; CPU like Mac OS X; en) AppleWebKit/420.1 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/3.0 Mobile/3A101a Safari/419.3iPhone user agent string Mozilla/5.0 (iPhone; U; CPU like Mac OS X; en) AppleWebKit/420+ (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/3.

0 Mobile/1C28 Safari/419.3The 3A101a and 1C28 strings are the actual firmware build version of the flash firmware, so your user agent string will change with each firmware upgrade.The most common way for a device to communicate with the surrounding is to receive and send frequency waves. The iPhone is no exception, as it has various chips to generate and interpret a wide range of frequencies. Network Type Network Technology Frequency Spectrum(Converted to GHz) Supported Apple Devices AM Radio Amplitude Modulation(535 kHz - 1705 kHz) .

000535 - .001705 GHz FM Radio Frequency Modulation(88 MHz - 108 MHz) .088 - .108 GHz Cellular 1G AMPS(800 MHz) .800 GHz Cellular 2G GSM/GPRS/EDGE(850, 900, 1800, 1900 MHz) .850 GHz.900 GHz1.800 GHz1.900 GHz iPhone ("2G"/3/3GS/4) iPad 3G cdmaOne (CDMA2000 1xRTT)(450, 700, 800 MHz) .450 GHz.700 GHz.800 GHz iPhone 4 (CDMA) Cellular 3G UMTS/HSDPA/HSUPA(850, 1900, 2100 MHz) .850 GHz1.900 GHz2.100 GHz iPhone 3G/3GS/4 iPad 3G UMTS/HSDPA/HSUPA(900 MHz) .

900 GHz iPhone 4 EV-DO(800, 1900 MHz) .800 GHz1.900 GHz iPhone 4 (CDMA) GPS GPS L1 (C/A-code) 1.57542 GHz iPhone 3G/3GS/4 iPad 3G GPS L2 (P-code) 1.22760 GHz1.57542 GHz Compass E1/E2/E5b/E6 1.20714 GHz1.22760 GHz1.26852 GHz1.561098 GHz Wireless Peripherals Bluetooth 2.0 + EDR 2.450 - 2.4835 GHz iPhone "2G"/3G Bluetooth 2.1 + EDR 2.450 - 2.4835 GHz iPhone 3GS/4 iPad (all) iPod Touch "2G"/"3G" Wireless LAN Wi-Fi 802.

11b/g 2.450 GHz iPhone (all) iPad (all) iPod Touch (all) Wi-Fi 802.11n 2.450 GHz5.800 GHz iPhone 4 (2.45 GHz) iPad (all) Wi-Fi 802.11a 5.800 GHz iPad (all) Infrared IrDA(344.828 THz) 344828 GHz IrDA(322.580 THz) 322580 GHz IrDA(315.789 THz) 315789 GHz Pink entries indicate not supported by any of the iPhone, iPad, nor iPod Touch devices. Note that the cellphone frequency numerical name is actually the radio frequency used in MHz.

UMTS/HSDPA (850, 1900, 2100 in MHz) is actually .85 GHz, 1.9 GHz, and 2.1GHz, respectively. GSM (850, 900, 1800, 1900 MHz) is similarly .85GHz, .9GHz, 1.8GHz, and 1.9GHz, respectively. Wi-Fi uses 2.45GHz (and 5.8GHz if you consider 802.11a and 802.11n), while Bluetooth uses 2.45 - 2.4835 GHz. Therefore, the iPhone 3G and 3GS has at least 10 antennas inside to communicate in all those frequencies (3 for 3G, 4 for GSM, 1 for Wi-Fi, 1 for GPS, and 1 for Bluetooth).

This is not including FM radio (Frequency Modulation) at 88 MHz - 108 MHz (or .088 GHz - .108 GHz). AM radio (Amplitude Modulation) is at the very low end of .535 MHz - 1.705 MHz (or .000535 GHz - .001705 GHz). Every supported frequency (yellow sections above) will be explained in more detail below, but to understand the above chart better, here is a conversion chart for the units involved: Wavelength Unit Equality Chart 1 km (kilometer) 1000 m (meter) 1 m (meter) 1000 mm (millimeter) 1 dm (decimeter) 100 mm (millimeter) 1 cm (centimeter) 10 mm (millimeter) 1 mm (millimeter) 1000 um (micrometer) 1 um (micrometer) 1000 nm (nanometer) Hertz Unit Equality Chart 1 THz (terahertz) 1000 GHz (gigahertz) 1 GHz (gigahertz) 1000 MHz (megahertz) 1 MHz (megahertz) 1000 kHz (kilohertz) 1 kHz (kilohertz) 1000 Hz (hertz) Hertz to Wavelength Conversion Chart Comments 344.

828 THz (terahertz) 870 nm (nanometer) IrDA Infrared 322.580 THz (terahertz) 930 nm (nanometer) IrDA Infrared 315.789 THz (terahertz) 950 nm (nanometer) IrDA Infrared 5.8 GHz (gigahertz) 5.172 cm (centimeter) Wi-Fi 802.11a/n 2.4835 GHz (gigahertz) 12.080 cm (centimeter) Bluetooth 2.45 GHz (gigahertz) 12.245 cm (centimeter) Wi-Fi 802.11b/g/n, Bluetooth 2100 MHz (megahertz) 14.286 cm (centimeter) 3G (UMTS) 1900 MHz (megahertz) 15.

790 cm (centimeter) 2G (cdmaOne, GSM), 3G (UMTS) 1800 MHz (megahertz) 16.667 cm (centimeter) 2G (GSM) 1.57542 GHz (gigahertz) 19.042 cm (centimeter) GPS L1/L2 1.22760 GHz (gigahertz) 24.438 cm (centimeter) GPS L2 (military only) 900 MHz (megahertz) 33.333 cm (centimeter) 2G (GSM), 3G (UMTS) 850 MHz (megahertz) 35.294 cm (centimeter) 2G (GSM), 3G (UMTS) 800 MHz (megahertz) 37.5 cm (centimeter) 1G (AMPS), 2G (cdmaOne) 450 MHz (megahertz) 66.

67 cm (centimeter) 2G (cdmaOne) 108 MHz (megahertz) 2.778 m (meter) FM radio 88 MHz (megahertz) 3.409 m (meter) FM radio 1705 kHz (kilohertz) 175.953 m (meter) AM radio 535 kHz (kilohertz) 560.748 m (meter) AM radio In case you forgot, conversion between wavelength and frequency is this equation:wavelength (meter) * frequency (hertz) = 299792458 meters/sec (speed of light)In other words, speed of light divided by either wavelength or frequency will yield the counterpart.

Note that IrDA LED generated infrared frequency are too fast to use directly, so the LEDS are turned on and off at a modulated frequency of 33 kHz - 60 kHz, and this is used for bits transmission instead. 33 - 60 kHz equates to .000033 - .000060 GHz. Cellular 1G Cellular technology is based on the concept of "cells" of coverage. Each cell would be served by a tall antenna broadcasting and receiving signals for all the users.

As each user moves farther away from a "cell", they are picked up by another closer "cell" antenna. Each cellular antenna would communicate with each other and with the user's device so that reception is not interrupted. Cellular 1G (the first generation of cell technology) is based on AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System). It is an analog mobile phone technology that worked over the 800MHz Cellular FM band.

AMPS is no longer in use and has been replaced by cellular 2G technology. Cellular 2G (the second generation of cell technology) is usually based on GSM (Global System for Mobile communications). A competitor to cellular 2G GSM is cellular 2G CDMA (cdmaOne), and it was created to use Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), but this 2G standard is not as popular worldwide. GSM The initial iPhones ("2G"/3G/3GS/4) supports this cellular 2G GSM.

GSM uses TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access). GSM became popular in Europe, and from there spread widely throughout the world. When you talk on the cellphone, you are usually using GSM, as it is basically made for voice. It is fairly slow and rates about 9.6kbps on 900Mhz frequency and 14.4kbps on 1800Mhz frequency. The first iPhone "2G" can only communicate using GSM, so it is a 2G cellphone. All GSM iPhones and the iPads support cellular 2G using 850, 900, 1900, and 2100 Mhz frequencies.

[embedded content]Note GSM does not allow simultaneous Voice and Data connections. Data connections are considered connections that use the internet. If you are texting, SMS (Short Messaging Service allowing 160 characters) normally uses a voice connection line of GSM (which is a special case of simultaneous Voice and Data connection using GSM's quality control line), but MMS (Multimedia Messaging Service) requires a real data connection (and the internet).

Note that the iPhone "2G" does not support MMS (Apple's iOS software limitation), but you can enable it via homebrew software. When you browse the web using the iPhone "2G" on the cellular network, you are also using a real Data connection, which is normally one of the two data technologies built on top of GSM: GPRS and EDGE. GPRS GPRS stands for General Radio Packet Standard. The GPRS data connection provides a maximum data rate (upload/download) of 32-48kbps at class 12.

Because the iPhone 4 is GPRS Class 10, max upload rate is 16-24kbps and maximum download rate is 32-48kbps. GPRS default technology is used when connecting to the internet on the iPhone using "2G" GSM. When not using any higher data speeds, you should see a small blue circle "o" next to your carrier name in the top left of the corner. Note that three modes that GPRS can be configured by the network carrier (Class A, B, and C).

Many carriers configure GPRS to Class B, which means if you are using the GPRS (using the browser for example), voice calls can't get through and is routed to voicemail (if available). Class A allows interruption, and Class C requires manual switching. For the iPhone "2G", this may be an inconvenience if you start missing calls if you are surfing the internet with GPRS (because your network carrier configured it to Class B).

You can use Wi-Fi (instead of GPRS) to surf the internet if you don't wish to miss calls. EDGE EDGE stands for Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution. Another name for this technology is EGPRS (Enhanced GPRS). EDGE basically enhances GPRS data connection so it reaches faster data upload and download speeds of 59.2-236.8kbps depending on the class implementation. Specifically, a slot can support 59.

2kbps, and the more slots, the faster the speed. Higher EDGE classes support more slots for each upload and download. Class 10 EDGE has 4 download slots and 3 upload slots. Class 12 EDGE has 4 download slots and 4 upload slots. The iPhone 4 chip supports EDGE Class 33, but Apple only implemented support to Class 10, so the maximum EDGE speed it supports is 236.8kbps download and 177.6kbps upload. The earlier iPhone "2G" chip supports EDGE Class 12 (upload and download speed cap of 236.

8kbps), but it is likely Apple only implemented EDGE Class 10 or lower (177.6kbps or lower upload speed). Similarly, the iPhone 3G/3GS chip supports EDGE Class 12, but Apple most likely only implemented support for Class 10 or lower. You should see an "E" symbol in the top left hand corner of the iPhone screen if you are using EDGE. Signal Strength The signal bar strength indicator at the top left corner of the iPhone screen can show five different levels.

Each bar shows that a specific strength of cellular signal has been surpassed, with the taller the bar the better the signal. In actuality, the bars simply light up depending on whether a negative numerical value representative of the cellular signal, from -121 (bad signal) to -51 (excellent signal), has been exceeded. Here are the values: 1st Bar: -121 to -107 2nd Bar: -107 to -98 3rd Bar: -98 to -87 4th Bar: -87 to -76 5th Bars: -76 to -51 Although the bars were first implemented to show cellular 2G signal strength, it can also show cellular 3G signal strength.

CDMA Starting with the iPhone 4 (CDMA variant), cellular 2G cdmaOne (or sometimes called CDMA2000 1xRTT) is finally supported (mainly for Verizon customers). The max upload and download speed of 2G CDMA is 153.6kbps. CDMA phones normally does not support a smartcard (unlike GSM). The actual CDMA capable silicon chip used in the CDMA iPhone 4 can also support GSM, but is not enabled (adding to the fact that there is also no hardware slot for a GSM smartcard in this phone).

If you are using EV-DO, then the "3G" symbol will be in the upper-left hand corner. If you are using CDMA2000 1xRTT, then you will see a circle ("o") in substitute. Cellular 3G (the third generation of cell technology) has many competing standards. In actual use, there are three standards used in the world: W-CDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) CDMA2000 EV-DO TD-SCDMA (Time Division Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access) All three are not compatible with each other.

W-CDMA was created to replace GSM and it is commonly called UMTS (Universal Mobile Telephone System) or 3GSM in Europe. W-CDMA can currently go up to 14.4Mbps. CDMA2000 1xRTT evolved from cdmaOne to better compete with GSM, and it can actually be described as 2.5G (maximum speed of 153.6kbps), but the truly 3G version is called CDMA2000 EV-DO (2.4Mbps to 14.7Mbps depending on the revision). TD-SCDMA is a China invented 3G standard (it actually co-exists there with both CDMA-2000 and W-CDMA).

Current implementations of TD-SCDMA has a maximum download speed of 2.8Mbps. W-CDMA The iPhone 3G/3GS/4 elected to use W-CDMA as their 3G technology. Therefore, you should see the "3G" letters in the top left hand corner of your iPhone 3G/3GS/4 or iPad 3G when you are using W-CDMA. If this is not shown, you are using regular 2G GSM (or GPRS/EDGE if connected to the internet).The iPhone 3G/3GS and iPad uses the Infineon X-Gold 608 - PMB 8878 baseband IC for W-CDMA 3G communication.

This chip supports three 3G frequencies (850 Mhz, 1900 Mhz, and 2100 Mhz). The iPhone 3G and 3GS have a plastic back instead of aluminum (compared to the original iPhone "2G") to improve 3G reception. More features of this chip include: WCDMA 384kbps class UL/DL HSDPA 7.2Mbps EDGE multislot class 12 SAIC/DARP support The iPhone 4 uses the Infineon X-Gold 618 - PMB 9800 for W-CDMA 3G communication.

This chip supports four 3G frequencies (850, 900, 1900, and 2100 Mhz). More features of this chip include: HSDPA/HSUPA of 7.2Mbps/2.9Mbps Uses ARM1176 CPU 65nm manufacturing process The iPhone 3G/3GS/4 and iPad 3G therefore provides 384kbps for regular W-CDMA 3G download and upload speeds. Note that the iPhone 4 has an extra support for 900 Mhz UMTS 3G capability. Concerning the different frequencies, it behaves like the differing frequencies of AM and FM.

Lower frequency (like AM) travel farther because it can bounce around easier, while higher frequency (like FM) gets blocked easier, thus travels a shorter distance. In the United States, there are less .85 GHz (850 MHz) towers than 1.9 GHz (1900 MHz) towers, which is unfortunate because lower frequency (.85 GHz) signals travel farther and better penetrates thick walls compared to higher frequency signals.

The standard UMTS 384kbps bit-rate is quite slow, so some cellphone networks support W-CDMA enhancement technologies: HSDPA HSDPA stands for High Speed Download Packet Access, and provides higher download speed than standard W-CDMA (384kbps). Depending on cell network implementation, download speed increments include 1.2Mbps, 1.8Mbps, 3.6Mbps, 7.2Mbps, 10.1Mbps, and 14.4Mbps. The iPhone 3G supports only HSDPA 3.

6Mbps, while the iPhone 3GS/4 and iPad 3G supports HSDPA 7.2Mbps. Note that although the iPhone 3GS supports HSDPA of 7.2Mbps the chip bus only supports a max throughput of 5Mbps. Model HSDPA Support Notes iPhone "2G" No iPhone 3G 3.6Mbps iPhone 3GS 7.2Mbps iPhone 4 7.2Mbps iPhone 4 (CDMA) 14.4Mbps Not Enabled iPad 3G 7.2Mbps HSUPA HSUPA stands for High Speed Upload Packet Access, and provides higher upload speed than provided by standard W-CDMA (384kbps).

The iPhone 3G/3GS and iPad 3G do not support HSUPA, so upload speeds are capped at 384kbps. The iPhone 4, however, does support 2.9Mbps HSUPA. The chip used in the iPhone 4 (CDMA model) does support HSUPA of 5.76Mbps, but it is not enabled. Model HSUPA Support Notes iPhone "2G" No iPhone 3G No iPhone 3GS No iPhone 4 2.9Mbps iPhone 4 (CDMA) 5.76Mbps Not Enabled iPad 3G No CDMA-2000 EV-DO The iPhone 4 (CDMA variant) uses CDMA2000 EV-DO as the 3G technology, but also supports cdmaOne (2G technology) and CDMA2000 1xRTT (2.

5G technology) for fallback at slower speeds. EV-DO stands for Evolution-Data Optimized. EV-DO has three basic variants: CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Rev 0 Max Download: 2.4 Mbps Max Upload: 153.6 kbps CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Rev A Max Download: 3.1 Mbps Max Upload: 1.8 Mbps CDMA2000 EV-DO Rev B Max Download (3 carriers): 14.7 Mbps Max Upload (3 carriers): 5.4 Mbps Max Download (15 carriers): 73.5 Mbps Max Upload (15 carriers): 27 Mbps The iPhone 4 (CDMA variant) contains the Qualcomm MDM6600 chip, which supports all three variants of EV-DO: REV 0, REV A, and REV B.

However, the chip only supports 3 carriers maximum (sometimes called CDMA2000 3xEV-DO Rev B because of this limit) so the max download speed is 14.7Mbps and the max upload speed is 5.4Mbps. Note that many countries only support EV-DO: REV A, so the maximum download/upload speed is 4G is sometimes referred to as HSPA+ or LTE. HSPA+ usually means supporting 64QAM for HSPDA download and 16QAM for HSUPA upload.

QAM stands for quadrature amplitude modulation. HSDPA with a single antenna using 64QAM can have a theoretical maximum download speed of 21.1Mbps. DC-HSDPA basically means Dual Cell HSDPA, allowing 42.2Mbps (double the 21Mbps of non-MIMO HSDPA). LTE has potential for 100Mbps download speed, and the iPad 3 has 73Mbps LTE for download. LTE is a rival to EV-DO, so it is called Long Term Evolution (as opposed to Evolution-Data Optimized).

Note that 4G technology is moving towards ip-packets (like the data packets on the internet), rather than circuit switched commonly used in telephone networks. 3GPP body creates the standards and their "Release" versions define what technology is put into future cellphone baseband chips. For example, Release 5 spec limited the iPhone 4 max download speed to 16QAM, which translates to 14Mbps. Release 7 spec allows for 64QAM: 21.

1Mbps (with MIMO 42.2Mbps, but not currently supported because of only one antenna in the iPhone). Release 8 allows for Dual-Cell 64-QAM: 42.2Mbps. Marvell was the Wi-Fi chipset used in the iPhone "2G"/3G. For the iPhone 3GS, the Broadcom BCM4325 chipset was used, supporting 802.11 b/g. Note that although this chip also supports FM radio, this feature does not seem to be useable in the iPhone 3GS at this time.

In addition, note that some chips support 802.11a or 802.11n, but some models of the iPhone and iPod Touch do not use them (sticking to the 2.45 GHz of 802.11b/g). Note that some iPhones sold in China have the Wi-Fi disabled (A1324 and A1325 for example) initially because of WAPI (a homegrown China solution) related requirements. Model Wi-Fi Chip Chip Capability Not Supported iPod Touch "2G" Broadcom BCM4325 802.

11 a/b/g 802.11 a iPod Touch "3G" Broadcom BCM4329 802.11 a/b/g/n 802.11 a/n iPhone "2G" Marvell 88W8686 802.11 b/g iPhone 3G Marvell 88W8686 802.11 b/g iPhone 3GS Broadcom BCM4325 802.11 a/b/g 802.11 a iPhone 4 Broadcom BCM4329FKUBG 802.11 a/b/g/n 802.11 a iPad (all) Broadcom BCM4329XKUBG 802.11 a/b/g/n iPad 2 (all) Broadcom BCM43291HKUBC 802.11 a/b/g/n Facetime The Facetime uses Wi-Fi. Because most connections to the internet have some sort of firewall implemented, it may not work unless some ports are forwarded.

Here are the required ports for Facetime to work properly:UDP: 53, 80, 443, 4080, 5223, and 16393-16472 The first iPhone "2G" supports regular Bluetooth 2.0 only.The iPhone 3G supports Bluetooth 2.0.The iPod Touch "2G" and iPhone 3GS supports Bluetooth 2.1.All the iPhone models support Class 2 Bluetooth 2.0 or 2.1 + EDR (Enhanced Data Rate). Class 2 has a maximum range of 10 meters. The EDR allows a faster data rate of 3Mbit/s as opposed to the original Bluetooth 1.

2 speed of 1Mbit/s. Bluetooth transmits and receives data in the 2.4 - 2.4835 GHz microwave radio frequency spectrum. This frequency is similar to microwave ovens (2.45GHz) and Wi-Fi 802.11b/g (2.45 GHz). Model Bluetooth Chip Comments iPod Touch "2G" Broadcom BCM4325 iPod Touch "3G" Broadcom BCM4329 iPhone "2G" Cambridge Silicon Radio iPhone 3G Marvell 88W8686 iPhone 3GS Broadcom BCM4325 iPhone 4 Broadcom BCM4329FKUBG iPad Broadcom BCM4329XKUBG Bluetooth Profiles Bluetooth Profiles basically define what Bluetooth devices can connect to a device using Bluetooth.

Many profiles can be added or removed via software, but some have hardware dependencies the prevent easy addition. Unfortunately, Apple decided to only support a small subset of available Bluetooth Profiles. Here are the supported Bluetooth Profiles for a current firmware version. Name Bluetooth Profile iPhone Models iPod Touch Models iPad Models HFP (1.5) Hands-Free Profile iPhone (all) PBAP Phone Book Access Profile iPhone (all) A2DP Advanced Audio Distribution Profile iPhone "2G"/3G/3GS/4 iPod Touch "2G"/"3G"/"4G" iPad (all) AVRCP Audio/Video Remote Control Profile iPhone 3G/3GS/4 iPod Touch "2G"/"3G"/"4G" iPad (all) PAN Personal Area Network Profile iPhone 3G/3GS/4 iPod Touch "2G"/"3G"/"4G" iPad (all) HID Human Interface Device (Keyboard Only) iPhone 3GS/4 iPod Touch "2G"/"3G"/"4G" iPad (all) HID allows keyboard, mouse, and joystick support.

For some devices, you are not able to connect any bluetooth keyboards, mouse, nor joystick because of the lack of HID Bluetooth Profile. iOS4 only added support for bluetooth keyboards (but not on iPhone "2G"/3G and iPod Touch "1G"/"2G").A2DP stands for Advanced Audio Distribution Profile, and the main advantage it provides is the ability to stream stereo (2-channel) audio wirelessly to your Bluetooth headset.

Note that the iPhone "2G" does not support officially the A2DP Bluetooth profile, but you can use homebrew to enable it.In early iOS versions, AVRCP (Audio/Video Remote Control Profile) Bluetooth Profile on the iPhone 3G/3GS was not complete, only allowing basic Play, Stop, and Pause. iOS 4.1 finally added in Next Track and Previous Track control. Location Services The iPhone (and iPod 3G) has many ways to obtain your location.

When you turn ON the option Settings -> General -> "Location Services", there are three major ways the iPhone gets your location: Satellite GPS (A-GPS), Cell Tower Triangulation, and WPS. If Location Service is in effect, your Google Maps app will have a blue dot indicating your location (which turns grey if all three types of location signals are lost). Note that the iPad Wi-Fi only does not have A-GPS (unlike the iPad 3G version).

A-GPS All the iPhones and the iPad 3G have assisted GPS (A-GPS). A-GPS allows obtaining your location via reading the multiple GPS semisynchronous satellites signals broadcasted in 1.57542 GHz. Model A-GPS Chipset Comments iPhone 3G Infineon PMB 2525 (Hammerhead II) 130nm manufacturing process iPhone 3GS Infineon PMB 2525 (Hammerhead II) 130nm manufacturing process iPhone 4 Broadcom BCM4750IUB8 iPad 3G Broadcom BCM4750IUB8 Satellite GPS In regular GPS (unencrypted civilian L1 1.

57542 GHz signal), reading and calculating your location takes time (getting good data lock on a minimum of 3 satellites and calculating your position takes about two minutes and can last up to five minutes for all satellites). The iPhone reads the C/A-code (Coarse Acquisition) GPS data from the satellites to get your position. Note that the iPhone can not read nor use the more accurate encrypted P-code (Precise) GPS data broadcasted on L1 (1.

57542 GHz) and L2 (1.22760 GHz). The alternative Chinese Compass navigational satellite signals are not supported either. The iPhone 4 (CDMA) does have chips that support the Russian GLONASS navigational satellites, but it, unfortunately, is not enabled. You normally must have a clear view of the sky to get the satellite signal (sometimes the satellites are in the sky on the horizon, sometimes above you).

GPS in Google Maps Whenever you are using satellite GPS, there is an animated blue outline of a circle that grows bigger and bigger until it disappears and starts small again from the blue dot.To ensure you are using satellite GPS, you can take out your SIM card (turn off 3G as well), turn off Wi-Fi, and turn on Location Services. Then turn off and on your iPhone, and go into Google Maps app. It should complain with a popup after a while.

Close the popup and hit the bottom left location button, and it should start spinning. After about two minutes you should get your first satellite signal, and you should see a blue dot, a transparent grayish circle covering the map, and an animated blue circle outline. About every 100 seconds after, you should pickup more satellite data, which will make the transparent circle smaller. If you lose a satellite, it should make the circle bigger.

The smallest can probably circle a tiny house. On average, it can circle an apartment complex.Note that for this example, since you don't have any cell signals or Wi-Fi at this point, you can't download map data. So to test satellite GPS, you should use a cache of the map data already downloaded for the area you are trying out, which requires that you pan around many city blocks on all the different zoom levels before turning off Wi-Fi (and/or removing your SIM card).

Cell Tower Triangulation The iPhone also supports Cell tower triangulation assisted positioning. All cell tower locations are known precisely, so if your iPhone is communicating with one (in either GSM or 3G), you can pinpoint your location to roughly 1500 meters. Normally, you can detect 2, 3, or more towers, which you can use triangulation to pinpoint your position fairly quickly (fixed towers don't move around, so first rough location can be gotten and calculated in 10 seconds or less).

Most assisted GPS use data from cell tower locations. This calculated data is most times less precise than waiting for satellite data. Cell Triangulation in Google Maps To test out cell tower triangulation in Google Maps app, simply turn off Wi-Fi (and 3G, as GSM works fine) and stay indoors (roof over your head) away from all windows. Make sure Location Services is ON. Turn off and on your iPhone and go into Google Map apps.

You should get a blue dot in less than 20 seconds with a transparent grey circle covering about a city block (can fit about 30 apartment complexes inside the circle). It is usually not very accurate with your location. The circle can move around (sometimes long distances two miles away, so zoom out) and grow bigger or smaller depending on which cell towers are picked up by your iPhone. On worse cases, with only one cell tower, you may end up with a huge circle covering a whole town (especially deep inside thick walls).

Once you move outside with a clear view of the sky, the animated blue circle outline should show up about two minutes later when satellite GPS is picked up (making your transparent circle small again). Note that the positioning of the GPS alone is different from GPS + GSM tower triangulation (but not by much). Note that the mapping software was switched from Google to Poly9 (bought by Apple) in later iOS firmwares to move more features in-house.

WPS If you are using a Wi-Fi access point, the iPhone can get your general position by getting the location of the actual Wi-Fi hotspot. The technology used here is called Wi-Fi Positioning System. It is basically a database (owned by Skyhooks company in iOS firmware lower than 3.2) that stores the MAC of the Wi-Fi access point you are connected to and links this MAC to a location. The location is actually entered by Skyhook company's cars going around all the roads searching for Wi-Fi signals.

People can also input their Wi-Fi access point's location using the company website. Most Wi-Fi signals only work within 20 meters (with walls) to 200 meters (no obstacles), so your positioning is not too bad (but also dependent on whether the location was entered into the database correctly). The location can be wrong if the Wi-Fi equipment was moved from one area to another without updating the Skyhook database.

Note that starting with iOS 3.2 and above, Apple uses its own database (Apple bought PlaceBase) rather than depend on Skyhook or Google. WPS in Google Maps To test out WPS, simply remove your SIM card (and turn off 3G), turn on Wi-Fi and Location Services. Find an access point, and connect to it. Go into Google Maps app. Note that because the database is not updated frequently, and sometimes errors on wrong user input, wrongful results often (especially if the access point was recently moved from another location).

The iPod Touch "2G"/"3G"/4, iPhone 3G/3GS, and iPad/iPad 2 have a built-in FM Receiver chip, so technically it is possible for these devices to listen to FM radio (88MHz - 108MHz). Unfortunately, Apple wants buyers to purchase songs from iTunes, and if you were allowed to listen to free music off of the air, they would not make as much of a profit. Therefore, at this moment, there is no official FM radio application.

It is possible to create a homebrew one, but a fully documented working FM receiver driver would be needed to control channel changing and the like. Model FM Receiver (capable) Chip Comments iPod Touch "2G" Broadcom BCM4325 iPod Touch "3G" Broadcom BCM4329 iPhone 3G Marvell 88W8686 iPhone 3GS Broadcom BCM4325 iPhone 4 Broadcom BCM4329FKUBG iPad (all) Broadcom BCM4329XKUBG iPad 2 (all) Broadcom BCM43291HKUBC Nike and Apple partnered to provide a way for the iPhone or iPod Touch to track your workouts.

It requires extra hardware to function, namely a pressure sensor that you place inside a shoe, tracking the down pressure movements of one of your foot. The frequency and pressure of your down movement can be calibrated to reflect how fast you are running. Because the sensor detects the amount of pressure applied, the sensor must be placed beneath your foot inside the shoe, and not just hanging outside somewhere.

The piezoelectric pressure sensor (in the foot) contains a Nordic Semiconductor nRF2402 transmitter that only transmits (can't receive) a 2.45GHz signal (around 20 feet, up to 60 feet) for your iPod Touch or iPhone to read. This signal includes a unique id. The iPod Touch "2G"/"3G", and the iPhone 3GS can read this special signal using its built-in receiver chips. iPod Touch "1G" and iPhone "2G"/3G lack this ability and do not work with Nike+.

Note that although Nike+ works for the iPod Nano, they require a special receiver peripheral plugged into the bottom. The custom RF signal transmitted by the sensor is using proprietary technology and is speculated to use Nordic Semiconductor's proprietary ANT for higher layers. Because the RF signal is at 2.45 GHz, it is speculated that Nike+ "borrows" some parts from Wi-Fi or Bluetooth hardware to receive the signal in the iPhone or iPod Touch.

On the back of the Nike+ Sensor is a button that if you press and hold for 3 seconds, will put it to sleep. This conserves the battery life. To wake it up, simply press the button again (quick click and release). Transmit to Receiver: FF 55 04 09 07 00 25 C7 Reponse: FF 55 04 09 00 00 07 EC Transmit to Receiver: FF 55 02 09 05 F0 Response: FF 55 04 09 06 00 25 C8 After the above sequence, the pressure sensor is ready to transmit data and the receiver is ready to receive.

All cellphones, in order to communicate with cell towers, must transmit a very powerful radio frequency (RF). Because the cell towers on average can cover thousands of meters, the cellphone must be able to transmit back the same distance. In comparison with Bluetooth and Wi-Fi that cover short distances (average 10 meters and 100 meters, respectively), a cellphone needs more power output to reach long distance towers.

The FCC (Federal Communication Commission) sets a limit of 1.6 watts per kilogram of SAR (Specific Absorption Rate) for cellphone radiation. Your cellphone must not expose you beyond this limit. Here is the span of radiation for the different iPhones (includes Wi-Fi and Bluetooth.)The iPhone "2G" has a SAR of .973 W/kg.The iPhone 3G has a SAR of 0.24-1.39 W/kg.The iPhone 3GS has a SAR of 0.52-1.19 W/kg.

Here is a breakdown of two cellular 3G bands (1850 MHz and 1900 MHz) and Wi-Fi/Bluetooth radiation affecting the head and body: iPhone Model 824-849MHz Head 824-849MHz Body 1850-1910MHz Head 1850-1910MHz Body 2400-2483.5MHz Head 2400-2483.5MHz Body iPhone 3G 0.506 W/kg 1.03 W/kg 1.38 W/kg 0.521 W/kg 0.779 W/kg 0.088 W/kg iPhone 3GS 0.57 W/kg 0.67 W/kg 1.19 W/kg 0.33 W/kg 0.52 W/kg 0.06 W/kg Note that using the 850 MHz band of cellular 3G gives you half as much radiation as the 1900 MHz band.

Also note that Wi-Fi and Bluetooth using lower power (but at higher average 2450 MHz) has less radiation than the higher power cellular but lower average 1900 MHz band. It is said that one SECOND of the higher power cellphone radiation equals to 7 hours of radiation sitting in the middle of a Wi-Fi hotspot. This indicates that low-power and low-frequency technology produces less radiation.It is unfortunate that in order to communicate, the iPhone must be placed next to your ear (right next to your brain).

For those who use laptops, it is also unfortunate that your lap is right next to your genitals (serious problem for those who tether a cellphone or use wi-fi). These two places happen to be delicate areas where exposure to radiation can get you brain cancer and genetic mutations of offsprings.Although lower in power, your proximity to a device constantly emitting Wi-Fi and Bluetooth (in order to keep a connection) is not too good for your body either.

It also happens that Bluetooth and Wi-Fi transmits on the same radio frequency as microwave ovens (2.45 GHz). Microwave ovens basically works by causing water molecules to vibrate, and too much vibration of unknown molecules in our brain can cause certain important cells to become cancerous, or cause mutations in the DNA structure of our sperm or ovary. So next time you talk for too long on the iPhone remember you are vibrating unknown molecules in your brain for the duration of your call.

One trend happening nowadays is to have fewer and fewer powerful towers, and merging the technology into a super tower (like WiMAX), which can cover many miles. The radiation levels to send a signal back to a tower many miles away would probably cause major health problems for many people, especially if everyone carried a device. Similarly, a satellite phone is out of the question because it requires a lot of power to send a signal to an orbiting satellite.

Because of the potential for health problems, the iPhone 3GS and later models (iPhone 4) moved the cellphone antenna to the bottom of the phone so that when it is communicating with the cell towers, the radiation is not next to your ear. However, because many people hold their phone near the bottom when they talk on the phone, it caused reception problems. A major hardware problem with the iPhone 4, in particular, caused dropped calls or serious reception issues when people held the bottom of their iPhone 4 because the antenna was on the outside in this model.

Touching the bottom of the iPhone 4 in a certain way will connect the iPhone 4 cell antenna with the Wi-Fi and bluetooth antenna, thus trigger the iPhone 4 cell reception to drop drastically. In later batches of the iPhone 4, a clear coating was applied on the outside antenna, thus you were no longer able to bridge the connection between the cell and wi-fi/bluetooth antennas with your hands. To save money on a recall to apply a clear coating (more expensive), free bumpers (less expensive) were freely given to early batch iPhone 4 owners.

Later batches of the iPhone 4 do not require this bumper because of the clear coating. One of the most interesting things about the iPhone is that it allows you to install a separate operating system on the internal flash. In fact, the Cydia application (after Jailbreaking your phone) basically installs many popular converted Linux (or Unix) applications and libraries. Because the iOS descended from OSX, and that itself descended from unix, many unix derived tools run just fine on the iPhone.

Programming on the iPhone is possible by using the official and unofficial tools available from Apple and the internet respectively. Programming on the iPhone using the official Apple iPhone SDK In order to make programs on the iPhone "officially" you need to purchase an Apple computer and download the iPhone SDK that only runs on Mac computers. There are yearly costs to be registered to develop on the platform, and you must be familiar with Objective-C and various the OS X specific APIs.

After making your program you submit it for approval and if accepted, it gets placed in the online AppStore. Programming on the iPhone using a Toolchain Before the official iPhone SDK was released, an unofficial "Toolchain" was released by a community of iPhone enthusiasts that allowed you to use C language. A toolchain is collection of tools (often free open source ones) that allows anyone to create software targeted for a given platform (like the iPhone).

These Toolchains usually run on Linux on a desktop computer or notebook. Public released toolchains exist for compiling programs for older versions of the iPhone OS (version 2.x), and the latest toolchains that support version 3.x require some manual tinkering. Note that starting with version 4, the iPhone OS was renamed to iOS so it can be better related to the iPod Touch and iPad. Unlike the PSP, the developers of the iPhone toolchain seem to keep the latest easy to install versions out of the public for personal control and benefit (which holds back many homebrew developers from releasing apps running on current jailbroken iPhone firmware).

One of the benefits of having a mobile phone with a powerful processor is the ability to use it as a replacement for the desktop personal computer. However, there is one ability that a mobile device must be able to achieve in order to be self-sufficient, and that is the ability to create and compile programs for itself without dependent on another machine. This is not yet possible with the iPhone, as not all the tools have been ported to run on the iPhone's ARM processor.

Note that because the iPhone's iOS is dependent on Objective-C, it is a slower operating system compared to traditional languages coded in C. Objective-C uses message passing rather than function calls, which is quite a bit slower in performance. Therefore, you may need to code parts of your code in C rather than Objective-C when performance is critical. Cydia Cydia has become a popular alternative to the App Store for the homebrew community of developers.

It uses the Debian APT packaging system for basic maintenance (searching, installing, upgrading, removing, etc) of software. In essence, it handles *.deb files, and software would be packaged into these *.deb files. Normally, you would use Cydia's graphical front end to do all the maintenance of software, and in the background it takes care of things like looking in /var/root/Media/Cydia/AutoInstall/ for any *.

deb files to install when rebooting. Unofficial iPhone features Because of the unofficial toolchain (and now a hacked installer that works with unsigned code created with Apple's XCode), many people have been able to add features to the iPhone that normally would not be permissible by Apple. Here are some applications that extend the iPhone that make it more useful... BytaFont - Allows changing the default font used in many apps (like Notes).

SwitcherMod - Allows making non-background running processes in switcher to be invisible (and allows locking horizontal orientation). Infinifolders - Allows scrolling page of icons in each folder to break the 12 app limit per folder restriction. Note: not free. TV Output - The following shows photos, games, and apps (not just videos) to the TV or Monitor. TVOut2 Mirror TVOut - Good: Free, Supports VGA cable.

Bad: Screen has irrituating hiccups and glitches. Landscape TV Out - Good: Free, Fast. Bad: Does not support VGA cable. DisplayOut - Good: Fast, Supports VGA cable. Bad: Requires purchase in Cydia store. MobileTerminal - Allows typing commands directly in your iPhone (like the Command Shell in Windows and Terminal in OSX). (Cydia Source: http://www.ijailbreak.com/repository/ ) OpenSSH - Creates a background service allowing logging into, or copying files to and from your iPhone remotely via Wi-Fi using SSH or compatible programs (CyberDuck on OSX, WinSCP on Windows).

User Agent Faker - Allows Safari's (or any app that use the internet) to modify UserAgent to emulate a real browser (for sites like Google translate). There are other useful programs available, but on a lower priority: LiveClock - Allows the default clock application icon to show the real time with a ticking seconds hand. Not supported in iOS 5 and later though. WeatherIcon - Allows the default weather application icon to show the current temperature and weather.

Fake Operator - Allows changing the name of your carrier (for privacy or fancy customization). vWallpaper for iOS4 - Allows a playing video to serve as the background of SpringBoard. (Cydia Source: http://i.danstaface.net/deb/ ) Enabling disabled features Sometimes, Apple disables certain features on older iOS devices to get users to purchase newer hardware, and thus more profit. Many of these features are not hardware related, and to enable them, you simply need to download appropriate homebrew software.

FaceIt 3G - Enables FaceTime on iPhone 3GS (Cydia Source: http://apps.iphoneislam.com ) AirVideoEnabler - Enable AirPlay for iPhone 3G (Cydia Source: http://cydia.zone-mr.net ) HDREnabler - Enable HDR (High Dynamic Range) photos on iPod Touch 4G. Enhancer - Enables iPhone 3G and iPod Touch 2G to have multitasking and wallpapers. SBSettings - Adds a hidden taskbar to the SpringBoard "time and battery bar" to allow simultaneous quick launch of extra features.

iPhone 2G AD2P Enabler - Enables iPhone "2G" to support Bluetooth AD2P profile so you can use stereo Bluetooth headsets. Native MMS iPhone 2G - Enables iPhone "2G" to support MMS (Multimedia Messaging Service), an upgraded version of SMS (Short Message Service). Note that SBSettings can be used simultaneously when running any standard iPhone app (which normally shows the "time and battery bar" when running).

The only standard iPhone app that you cannot use with SBSettings is when you are using the camera. Even custom apps will work with SBSettings if they show the "time and battery bar" (like Cydia). The iPhone is picking up the pieces where the PSP and the PS3 have neglected to implement. The ultimate full-featured mobile device where you can take it on the go and plug into a HDTV when at home is coming to fruition.

Although the iPhone concentrates more on the cellphone and computer-like capabilities of installing unlimited software, it lacks the high-definition display output of the PS3 (no 1080p screen output, with a subpar 1024x768 on the iPad 1/2 and 960x640 on the iPhone 4/iPod Touch 4), and has worse 3D graphical performance than the PSP for a mobile device (with probably an exception for the iPad 2). Since the iPhone LCD screen is not even 1920x1080p, nor has 1080p HDTV output (nor 1080p HD projection glasses output) already renders it yesterday's technology.

1280x720 is close, but not enough. The iPad 2 finally allows 1920x1080p, but via external HDMI output. The screen on the iPhone is also so small (3.5") that if you put two thumbs on the screen (mandatory for any games now) you cover up 25% of the screen. They also lack features because profit motives: lack of AM/FM/TV over-the-air reception and no flash memory card slot (unlike on the PSP). In addition, Apple decided to drop support for useful Bluetooth peripherals with the iPhone, like Bluetooth mouse and joysticks, thus turning the touch screen into a liability because certain applications don't work well with just the touch screen (like games).

Some forward looking features would have been nice on the iPhone, like remote battery charging without wires, HD projection glasses output (to get HDTV right in front of your eyes), external temperature sensor (for scientific related games and apps), and lastly a fixed ip solution so you can host webservers and other content right on your phone (not to mention cheaper 3G or 4G pricing). Another forward thinking feature would be to include ability for daisy-chaining multiple external devices to the iPhone (like how USB hubs work for the PC).

If the iPhone is compared to an organism (looking forward into the future, most devices with a CPU will become sentient), it would have three of the five senses that we have: see image: video camera hear sound: microphone feel touch: capacitive touch screen It can also generate them: create image: LCD screen create sound: speakers create feedback: vibration Missing are smell and taste. The iPhone, however, is able to do something we are not able to: receiving (and generating) frequencies other than light wavelength (on the LCD), which allows it to communicate with other devices (Cellular 2G/3G, GPS, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, etc).

Besides the missing AM/FM/TV wavelengths, another nice addition would be infrared wavelength to control televisions, home media centers, and using it to see in the dark. Variable RF generation would also allow controlling car doors, garage doors, and other similar devices. High energy frequencies like X-Rays and microwaving food are not a priority (even if the Wi-Fi and Bluetooth share the same microwave oven frequency).

However, the iphone makes up for some of it by having "sixth" (or more) senses like gravity detection using accelerometer (many animals like cats can quickly detect which way is down), and magnetism detection using a digital compass (some animals align their bodies north-south during grazing). Extending this comparison, we can see that the iPhone can be improved by adding an atmospheric barometric pressure sensor or altimeter (some birds have this ability), which allows hikers or pilots to determine altitude.

Make the iPhone waterproof, and then add a bathymeter (whales have this ability) to allow divers to determine their water depth. The ability to detect temperature (most animals can feel heat and cold) would also be extremely useful as a companion to the temperature and weather app.So can the iPhone be the ultimate device of the future? Perhaps, but the many things above should be considered to meet the demands of future technology aware consumers.

Perhaps the future iPhone will use HSPA+ for faster 3G, or iPhone 4G using LTE (Long Term Evolution) for 4G speeds, but the concern of RF radiation may affect future directions of wireless technology. Perhaps more numerous lower power (and lower frequency) transmitters rather than a few powerful cell towers (similar to the high radiation WiMAX towers that can cover many miles) will be healthier. Using VoIP over extremely low-power low-frequency technology (FM? 88 MHz - 108 MHz) is a possibility.

Maybe the future cellphones (iPhone 5G or iPhone 6G?) will allow each connected phone to help transmit data for other phones, since almost everyone will be carrying one anyways (second-hand radiation will probably be as important as second-hand smoke). Underlying technology used by TOR would come in handy in these types of dynamic nodes. Besides, the longer the distance and the higher frequency the phone needs to transmit equates to lower battery life.

Perhaps in the future, all devices will have remote charging, so that wherever you go your device is always powered (or charging) by a local power emitter that can charge your phone remotely without wires.There is also the problem of the inability to upgrade the devices. Even many notebook computers allow swapping out harddrive, RAM chips, and even the CPU these days. With Apple releasing better and better versions of each device each year, the closed architecture of the system makes for some expensive upgrading (in other words, you got to buy a whole new device).

Perhaps binary compatibility of the software running on the ARM CPU is what is driving the sales, and maybe the next generation iPhones can learn from the expansion card architecture of PCs, and introduce upgradable internal components (CPU, GPU, RAM, and Flash size for example) so devices can last a minimum of 6 years (the standard on consoles). Common iPhone Problems Although the iPhone is heading in the right direction, there are still a few things that are problematic with the device.

One of the main complaints has to do with its proprietary connector (the opening on the bottom of the iPhone). Because the tiny pins are so close to each other, if you were to disconnect the connection from the iPhone side (by wiggling and pulling), you may end up causing an electrical short on the USB side connected to your PC or notebook computer. This is because during the wiggling and pulling, many pins end up touching pins it is not supposed to connect to.

Because of this, you should always connect and disconnect the connector to the iPhone while the other end (USB for example) is NOT connected to anything. Always connect the connector to the iPhone first, or disconnect the connector to the iPhone last. They spent 5 generations before finally upgrading to the Lightning port in the iPhone 5 that matches the small size of the MicroUSB port.Another problem is the lack of usability testing by engineers before releasing.

For example, the Notes app lacks a font that can distinguish between uppercase i and lowercase L. The two characters: Il are indistinguishable from each other in the notepad, thus preventing entering important info like tracking numbers, serial numbers, and webpage URL shorteners. In some websites (like video websites), one wrong character means a wrong video. If your iOS device is jailbroken, there is a solution available by installing BytaFont, and using a font that allows you to differentiate between alike characters.

One such font is Comfortaa (just be careful differentiating between 0 and O).The iPhone seems prone to problems with the Home button as well. For example, on the iPhone 4, constant clicking bends the board the button contact is located on. After a while, your clicks are not registered, and this Home button is usually the first thing to break. A small bandaid fix is to prop the circuit board back up by inserting something that is not conductive near the inside bottom edge of the power connector opening.

Another big complaint is the small size of the screen. Although mentioned before, where projection in front of your eyes is the future, current technology is limited by what you can hold in your hands. Because of the limit of our eyes, the only way to establish 1080p is to increase the size of the display. Getting 1080p inside 4 inches is meaningless because your eyes won't be able to discern the pixels.

One of the biggest limiting factor is Apple's insistence of measuring your thumb to define maximum width of a phone. Unfortunately, they lack usability testing in finding that most people hold their phone with the index finger in the middle for balance, and hang the phone low, allowing the thumb easy navigation. In this scenario, the diagonal width of the screen can be as large as 5.5 inches. No one holds the phone so deep into your palm, as in that position, your thumb has difficult time navigating near the right edge.

It is this stubborn insistence of outdated theories that limit Apple's advancement. It is the same with insistence on re-writable optical discs in NeXT that led to that companies downfall because of slow performance (not to mention the high price). They spend so much time and effort in making the glass back that they never did usability testing of people using their phones drop them regularly. Which led to them reversing and going back to non-glass back in iPhone 5.

They spend so much time squeezing everything into such a small factor, they don't realize that people want a bigger phone with big screen. All their battery life performance can also be increased in a bigger case. Instead they spend so much time on polishing the edge of the phone, where the majority of the time people can care less as long as it is durable. People focus on the screen (aka, screen size).

If Apple does not heed the wants of consumers, they are going to go the way of the previous Apple, almost bankrupt. Microsoft or other companies will simply copy Apple's good parts but focus on their designs with good usability, what the population of consumers want. Innovation is good, but to innovate and lose track of reality (consumer usability and wants) is bad for business. The following requires the device to be off.

..Press Power button for 3 seconds: Turn on device.The following requires the device to be on...Press Power button: Put device into sleep mode immediately.Press Home button: Go to search panel.Press Home button twice quickly: Access switcher panel on the bottom. (swipe right once for iPod/music player controls, and again for volume).Press and hold any icon for 3 seconds: Moving Springboard icons mode (Home button to exit)Press and hold Home button for 4 seconds: Initiate Voice Control.

Press and hold Power button for 4 seconds: Access slider to turn off devicePress and hold Power button for 4 seconds: Do not move slider to turn off device. Release Power button, then press and hold Home button for 6 seconds to force kill current running application.Press both Power and Home buttons and release immediately: Snap photo of current LCD screen and put into photo collection.Hold down both Power and Home buttons for 10 seconds: Hard Reset (Apple logo appears)The following requires the device to be on and in sleep mode.

..Press Power button: Access slider to exit sleep mode.Press Home button: Access slider to exit sleep mode. Recovery Mode You can force your device into a special Recovery Mode. In this mode, the iBoot is running on your device. You need a USB cable connected to your iPhone for this mode to be activated.Turn off your iPhone. Connect one end of the USB cable to the iPhone. While holding Home button down, connect the other USB cable end to a computer.

Keep holding the Home button until you see an image of a USB cable and iTunes logo on your iPhone. Just run iTunes to reflash your firmware at this stage.If you wish to exit this mode without reflashing, simply disconnect the USB cable and hold Power down for 6 seconds, which will power off your iPhone. Turn on your device again, and it should be back to normal. DFU Mode You can force your device into a special "DFU" mode (Device Firmware Upgrade).

In this mode, the iBoot is not running on your device. You need a USB cable connected to your iPhone for this mode to be activated.Connect one end of the USB cable to your iPhone. Connect the other USB cable end to a computer. Turn off your iPhone (fully off, not just in sleep mode). Press and hold both Power and Home button for 8 seconds. The LCD screen should turn on with the Apple logo and then go blank again during that 8 seconds.

Keep holding both down for 2 more seconds and then release Power button only, but keep holding down Home button for about 10 more seconds. Your iPhone is now in DFU mode with screen still blank. Note that if at any time during this process you see an Apple logo on the screen (besides the initial one in the beginning), then you have done it wrong. You can now use iTunes to flash new firmware without iBoot running.

To confirm you are in DFU mode, you can disconnect the cable and try to power on the iPhone normally (it should be unresponsive).To exit DFU mode without re-flashing, disconnect the cable and hold both Power and Home button for 10 seconds. Turn on your device again, and it should be back to normal. Undo Typing To quickly undo typing recently done, just shake the iPhone. A pop-up will ask you if you want to do the undo feature.

[embedded content] Special Safari Protocols In addition to http://, https://, ftp:// protocol identifiers, the iPhone also supports tel://, facetime://, and mailto://You must have a complete and valid URL (Uniform Resource Locator) for it to work. Safari will then launch the appropriate application to handle it.tel://NUMBER will pop up a dialog asking if you wish to make a cellphone call to NUMBER using the baseband.

facetime://CONTACT will pop up a dialog asking if you wish to make a video call to CONTACT using Apple's Facetime over Wi-Fi.mailto://EMAIL_ADDRESS will launch the mail program to compose a message to EMAIL_ADDRESS. Special Dialing Codes On the iPhone you can enter special phone numbers to access special features or information. These numbers (or codes) work on most GSM capable phones, and the iPhone is no exception.

You must tap dial after each number (unless specified differently in the description). Dialing Code Description *3001#12345#* Mode: Field TestYou will then be taken to a page providing many current information detailing your cell connection. Note that when you are in this mode, the signal strength bar on the top-left corner becomes a negative number. The closer this number is to 0, the stronger the cell signal (or the closer you are to a tower).

The Field Test entries under categories on this page are:MM Info UMTS Cell Environment GSM Cell Environment PDP Context List UMTS Cell Environment and GSM Cell Environment provides good information on your 3G and 2G connection, respectively. For example, under "GSM Cell Environment" -> "GSM Cell Info" -> "Neighboring Cells" you can see how many cell towers or relays are visible to your iPhone while using GSM (2G).

As for the frequency you are using, use the following guide to match your ARFCN (Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number):GSM (when you are using 2G): "GSM Cell Environment" -> "GSM Cell Info" -> "GSM Serving Cell" -> "ARFCN" Values 0-124: R-GSM 900Mhz band Values 0-124: E-GSM 900Mhz band Values 1-124: P-GSM 900Mhz band Values 128-251: GSM 850Mhz band Values 259-293: GSM 450Mhz band Values 306-340: GSM 480Mhz band Values 438-511: GSM 750Mhz band Values 512-810: PCS 1900Mhz band Values 512-885: DCS 1800Mhz band Values 955-1023: R-GSM 900Mhz band Values 975-1023: E-GSM 900Mhz band UMTS (when you are using 3G): "UMTS Cell Environment" -> "UMTS RR Info" -> "Uplink Frequency" Values 4132-4233: 800/850Mhz band Values 9262-9538: 1900Mhz band You can also find out if (when using GSM and GPRS) your carrier is able to interrupt your GPRS session with a GSM voice call.

Under "GSM Cell Environment" -> "GPRS Information" -> "Network Operating Mode", if it is NOM 001 then Voice has higher priority (Class A), while NOM 002 indicates Data has a higher priority than Voice (Class B). NOM 003 (manual switching) is uncommon.Note that this Field Test Mode was disabled in iOS 4.0, and re-enabled in iOS 4.2.1. However, many of field test features listed are no longer available unless you use an earlier version of the firmware, or re-enable via homebrew.

*#06# Mode: IMEIWhen you enter this number (no need to touch dial afterwards), you should be presented with your 15 digit IMEI number. IMEI stands for International Mobile Equipment Identity. It is a unique identification number for every cellphone (including the iPhone). Many cell networks can ban stolen cellphones using this IMEI number (changing SIM cards have no effect on ban) by checking the EIR (Equipment Identity Register) database downloaded from a central server.

Similarly, IMEI, in combination with a SIM card, provides an easy method to track the location of a person. Changing cellphone, you can be tracked by SIM card used. Changing SIM card, you can be tracked by cellphone used. Location can be narrowed down using IMEI triangulation of cell towers the cellphone is closest to. Note that this ability is similar to the assisted GPS feature of the iPhone 3G and iPhone 3GS, with the difference in that turning ON Location Services lets iPhone and its applications use this tracking info immediately (less than 10 seconds).

Turning it OFF means this tracking info from the cell towers is simply not processed on the iPhone, but is available if needed. Unfortunately, changing IMEI number is illegal in many countries, but is possible on the original iPhone using homebrew software. It is unknown whether changing IMEI on the iPhone 3G/3GS using software is possible. *#21# Mode: Call ForwardingYou will be presented with a list of call forwarding settings currently in effect.

*#30# Mode: Calling Line PresentationYou will be shown whether Calling Line Presentation is enabled. This is just another name for caller ID (displaying the number of the caller who called you). *#33# Mode: Call BarringYou will be presented with a list of call barring settings currently in effect. *#43# Mode: Call WaitingYou will be presented with a list of call waiting settings currently in effect.

*#61# Mode: Call Forwarding (Unanswered)You will be presented with a list of call forwarding (when unanswered) settings currently in effect. *#62# Mode: Call Forwarding (Unreachable)You will be presented with a list of call forwarding (when unreachable) settings currently in effect. *#67# Mode: Call Forwarding (Busy)You will be presented with a list of call forwarding (when busy) settings currently in effect.

*#76# Mode: Connected Line PresentationYou will be shown whether Connected Line Presentation is enabled. If a number you called is actually forwarded to another number, this feature allows you to see the actual number you got forwarded to. *#5005*7672# View SMS center numberYou will be shown SMS center number. *#5005*7672*SMSNUMBER Replace current SMS center number with SMSNUMBERThe SMS center number will be replaced by what you enter for SMSNUMBER.

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Wilma Lawrence

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